Wakora iki igihe wahuye n’akarengane cyangwa utishimiye imikirize y’urubanza?

Abantu barenganyijwe cyangwa abatarishimiye imikirize y’urubanza, amategeko abaha uburenganzira bwo gusaba kurenganurwa. Kujurira hari uburyo bigomba gukorwamo, igihe bikorerwamo n’aho bikorerwa.

Ese naraciriwe urubanza ngakatirwa n’inkiko ntahari simenye ko nakatiwe aho mbimenyeye nakora iki? Ni ryari nemerewe kujurira? Ni ubuhe buryo bwo kujurira bubaho? Ese kujurira bikorerwa hehe?

Ibi bibazo byose turabisubiza mu nkuru twabateguriye ijyanye n’igikorwa cyo kujurira kibaho ku muntu cyangwa urwego rutishimiye imikirize y’urubanza cyangwa igihe habayeho akarengane.

Uburyo tubagezaho muri iyi nkuru ni ubukoreshwa mu gihe cy’imanza z’inshinjabyaha (Criminal Cases). Byumvikane ko ubu buryo n’ubwo hari ibyo buhuza n’ubukoreshwa mu gihe cy’imanza mbonezamubano ariko ntabwo busa.

Kugira ngo ubyumve neza, reka tugufashe gutandukanya imanza mbonezamubano n’imanza z’inshinjabyaha.

Imanza z’inshinjabyaha ni igihe uwakoze icyaha agikoreye igihugu. Muri izi manza ubushinjacyaha ni bwo buba buhagarariye inyungu za Leta. Ibyaha byakozwe cyangwa se bishobora gukorwa n’ibihano byabyo biteganywa n’igitabo cy’amategeko giteganya ibyaha n’ibihano muri rusange cya 2018. Ku manza z’inshinjabyaha uwatsinzwe aba ashobora guhabwa igihano cy’igifungo, gutanga ihazabu, gukora imirimo rusange cyangwa igihano cy’urupfu aho cyemewe. Urugero twatanga aha ni urubanza rwerekeranye n’icyaha cyo kwica.

Mu gihe imanza z’imbonezamubano ari igihe habayeho amakimbirane cyangwa kutubahiriza ibyo abantu bumvikanye,hakabaho igihombo runaka cyishyurwa n’impozamarira. Aha uwatsinzwe asabwa gutanga indishyi (Damages) ku wangirijwe n’ikibazo cyangwa amakimbirane yateje cyangwa urukiko rukaba rwamuhana mu bundi buryo butarimo igihano cy’igifungo nk’uko twabibonye bigenda ku manza z’inshinjabyaha.

Mu gihe mu manza z’inshinjabyaha ubushinjacyaha buba buhagarariye Leta ari bwo buyihagararira mu rukiko, mu manza mbonezamubano umuntu ku giti cye ni we wihagararira mu Rukiko.

Urugero twatanga ku manza z’imbonezamubonamo ni imanza zerekeranye n’ikibazo cyatewe n’izungura, amasezerano atubahirijwe cyangwa ubutane (Divorce).

Amategeko y’u Rwanda ateganya ko umuntu warenganyijwe cyangwa utishimiye imikirize y’urubanza mu manza z’inshinjabyaha ashobora gukoresha uburyo bune (4) bwo kujurira kugira ngo ahabwe ubutabera. Ubu buryo ni bwo bita mu Cyongereza ‘Legal Remedies’.

Turahera ku buryo benshi musanzwe mumenyereye ari bwo buzwi nko kujurira (Appeal)

1. KUJURIRA (Appeal)

Kujurira ni igikorwa gikorwa iyo uwaciriwe urubanza atishimiye imikirize y’urubanza. Umuntu ujurira n’ubwo ari uburenganzira bwe ariko ntiyakagombye kumva ko igihe cyose agomba kujya kujurira ngo ni uko atishimiye imikirize y’urubanza .

Ushobora kutishimira imikirize y’urubanza kuko wifuzaga gutsinda ariko ugahitamo kutajurira kubera ko nta bimenyetso ufite bizatuma utsinda urubanza mu gihe cy’ubujurire . Aha umuntu wiyemeje kujurira aba agomba kujurira kuko afite impamvu zo kujurira atitwaje gusa ngo ni uko yatsinzwe urubanza akaba atishimiye ko atatsinze.

Uregwa ashobora kujuririra urubanza rwose cyangwa zimwe mu ngingo atishimiye imikirize yazo. Urukiko rwajuririwe ruburanisha gusa mu mbibi z’icyajuririwe. Iyo urubanza rujuririwe, irangizwa ryarwo riba rihagaritswe kugeza ku munsi igihe cyo kujurira kirangiriraho cyangwa niba umuntu yarajuriye, kugeza igihe hafatiwe icyemezo kuri ubwo bujurire. Kujuririra indishyi ntibihagarika irangiza ry’ibihano uwatsinzwe yakatiwe.

Uburenganzira bwo kujurira bufitwe n’aba bakurikira: utegetswe kuriha; uwaregeye indishyi cyangwa abahawe indishyi batasabye ariko ku byerekeye indishyi gusa n’ Ubushinjacyaha.

Ikirego cy’ubujurire gitangwa mu rukiko rwisumbuye ku rw’ababuranishije urubanza bigakorwa mu gihe kitarenze iminsi 30 icyemezo cy’urukiko gitangajwe. Aha bisobanuye ko utanze ikirego cy’ubujurire hashize iminsi irenze 30 waramenyeshejwe icyemezo cy’urukiko ikirego cyawe ntabwo urukiko rucyakira.

Umuntu utarabashije kugaragara mu isoma ry’urubanza yaramenyeshejwe umunsi w’isomwa ry’urubanza ntiyohereze n’uwo kumuhagararira ntiyitwaza ko atamenyeshejwe icyemezo cy’urukiko.

Umuntu utaraje kuburana mu rubanza no mu isomwa ry’urubanza ntaze iminsi yo kujurira itangira kubarwa iyo amaze kumenyeshwa icyemezo cy’urukiko.

Iyo waburanye wemera icyaha ntabwo uba wemerewe kujuririra icyemezo cyafashwe n’urukiko.

Uregwa wari ufunzwe, urukiko rukamugira umwere cyangwa rukemeza ko igifungo cye gisubikwa cyangwa rukamuca ihazabu yonyine, afungurwa ako kanya kabone n’iyo habayeho ubujurire.

Icyakora, Ubushinjacyaha bushobora, bumaze kujurira, gusaba Urukiko rwajuririwe ko ukurikiranyweho kimwe mu byaha bivugwa muri iyi ngingo kandi hari ibimenyetso bifatika ko gufungurwa kwe kwahungabanya umutekano rusange yongera gufungwa by’agateganyo kugeza igihe urubanza rwajuririwe ruciriwe.

Ibyo byaha ni ibi bikurikira:Jenoside; Ibyaha byibasiye inyokomuntu; Ibyaha by’intambara; Ibyaha byo guhohotera umwana; Ibyaha bigamije guhungabanya umutekano w’Igihugu cyangwa w’ibindi bihugu; Ibyaha by’iterabwoba; Ibyaha byo kugambanira Igihugu n’ibyaha by’ubutasi.

2. GUSUBIRISHAMO URUBANZA (Opposition)

Gusubirishamo urubanza bigamije ko urubanza rwaciwe uregwa adahari rwongera kuburanishwa. Gusaba ko urubanza rusubirishwamo bisabwa n’uwarezwe mu rukiko rwaciye urubanza rusabirwa gusubirishwamo. Bikorwa mu buryo bumwe n’ubwo gutanga ikirego.

Umwanzuro usaba ko urubanza rusubirishwamo ugomba kugaragaza impamvu zikomeye zatumye ubisaba ataboneka mu iburanisha ry’urubanza rusabirwa gusubirishwamo.

Gusubirishamo urubanza bikorwa mu gihe kitarenze iminsi cumi n’itanu (15) uhereye igihe usaba gusubirishamo urubanza abimenyeye (Ubundi mbere amategeko yateganyaga iminsi 10)

Iyo nta bimenyetso bigaragaza ko uwaciriwe urubanza adahari yabonye imenyesha, ashobora gusaba kurusubirishamo igihe cyose igihano kitarasaza cyangwa igihe cyose urubanza rutararangizwa ku byerekeye indishyi.

Gusubirishamo urubanza byemerwa gusa iyo uregwa utaritabye mbere agaragaje impamvu ikomeye yamubujije kwitaba. Urukiko rwaregewe rugena mu bushishozi bwarwo agaciro ruha impamvu itanzwe yatumye umuburanyi atitaba.

Icyakora, uwakatiwe n’Inkiko Gacaca atari mu gihugu yemerewe gusaba gusubirishamo urubanza mu nkiko zibifitiye ububasha iyo ageze mu gihugu. Iyo yizanye ku bushake bwe, akurikiranwa adafunze kugeza hafashwe icyemezo, aha gusubirishamo urubanza bikorerwa mu rukiko rw’ibanze.

Uwasabye ko urubanza rwaciwe adahari rusubirwamo ategetswe kwitaba ku giti cye. Iyo mu rubanza rwaciwe adahari yari ategetswe kuba ahari, cyangwa igihe urubanza rwaciwe adahari rwategetse ko kugira ngo gusaba ko rusubirwamo byemerwe, nyiri ukubisaba agomba kurubonekamo.

Iyo uwasabye ko urubanza rwaciwe adahari rusubirwamo yongeye kutitaba, kurusubirishamo ntibiba bicyemewe keretse iyo yongeye akagaragaza impamvu zikomeye kandi zidasanzwe zatumye ataboneka.

Gusubirishamo urubanza rwaciwe uregwa adahari bihagarika irangiza ryarwo. Icyakora urukiko rwaciye urubanza uregwa adahari, rushobora gutegeka mu gihe icyaha kimuhamye, ko ahita afatwa agafungwa n’ubwo bwose yasubirishamo urubanza.

Urukiko rwaciye urubanza uregwa adahari rushobora kandi no gutegeka ko uwahamwe n’icyaha afatwa agafungwa iyo habonetse impamvu zikomeye kandi zidasanzwe.

Iyo isubirishamo ry’urubanza rwaciwe uregwa adahari ryemewe, urubanza rwaciwe mbere nta gaciro ruba rugifite. Urukiko rwongera kuburanisha bundi bushya urubanza mu ngingo zarwo zose. Iyo idosiye iregwamo abantu benshi bamwe bakitaba abandi ntibitabe, abaregwa bose barongera bagahamagarwa.

Iyo mu isubirishamo urubanza ubushinjacyaha butabonetse, ucyekwaho icyaha ararekurwa mu gihe akurikiranyweho icyaha gihanishwa igihano kiri munsi y’imyaka 5 y’igifungo. Gusa ntabwo ibi bikorwa ku cyaha cy’ubugome (Felony) ni ukuvuga icyaha gihanishwa igifungo kiri hejuru y’imyaka itanu (5) kugeza ku gifungo cya burundu.

Ubushinjacyaha bubikora mu gihe kitarenze amasaha mirongo ine n’umunani (48) uhereye igihe urubanza rwasomeweho kandi urukiko na rwo rukabifataho icyemezo mu gihe kitarenze ayo masaha.

3.GUSUBIRISHAMO URUBANZA INGINGO NSHYA (Application for Review)

Gusubirishamo urubanza ingingo nshya ni ugushaka ko urubanza rwaciwe burundu ruvanwaho rukongera gusuzumwa bundi bushya hubahirijwe impamvu ziteganywa n,amategeko.

Gusubirishamo urubanza ingingo nshya bishobora gukorwa n’aba bakurikira: Ubushinjacyaha ; uwahamwe n’icyaha; cyangwa uwaregeye indishyi.

Iyo uwaciriwe urubanza cyangwa uwakorewe icyaha yapfuye, yazimiye cyangwa yabuze, gusaba gusubirishamo urubanza ingingo nshya bishobora gukorwa n’uwo bashakanye, umwana we cyangwa abandi amategeko yemerera kumuzungura, uwo yaraze ibye, cyangwa uwo yasize ashinze ubwo butumwa.

Gusubirishamo urubanza ingingo nshya bisabwa mu rukiko rwaciye urubanza mu rwego rwa nyuma, rukaburanishwa n’inteko itararuburanishije mbere. Icyakora, urubanza rwaciwe n’urukiko Gacaca rusubirishwamo mu Rukiko rw’Ibanze.
Urubanza rushobora gusubirishwamo ingingo nshya kubera imwe mu mpamvu zikurikira:

1° ushinjwa amaze gucirwa urubanza rw’uko yishe umuntu, hanyuma hakaboneka ibimenyetso bihagije byemeza ko uwo bakeka ko yishe atapfuye.

2° bamaze gucira ushinjwa urubanza ku cyaha yashinjwaga, hakaboneka urundi rubanza nk’urwo rwahannye undi muntu kandi rumuhanira icyo cyaha, izo manza zombi zivuguruzanya zikaba zigaragaje ko umwe mu bakatiwe yarenganye.

3° iyo habayeho ruswa muri urwo rubanza yemejwe n’urukiko kandi ikaba yaragize ingaruka ku mikirize yarwo.

4° iyo haciwe urubanza bashingiye ku mpapuro, ku buhamya cyangwa indahiro byaje kugaragara cyangwa kwemezwa n’urukiko ko ari ibihimbano nyuma y’icibwa ry’urwo rubanza.

5° iyo kuva aho urubanza ruciriwe, habonetse ikimenyetso gishya kimara impaka kigaragaza neza akarengane katewe n’urubanza rusabirwa gusubirwamo.

6° iyo urubanza rushingiye ku byakozwe mu iburanisha bikozwe mu izina ry’umuntu utarigeze atanga ubwo bubasha mu buryo ubwo ari bwo bwose, cyangwa ngo yemere cyangwa yemeze ibyakozwe.

Ku bijyanye n’imanza zaciwe n’Inkiko Gacaca, gusubirishamo urubanza ingingo nshya byemerwa gusa iyo uwakatiwe urubanza yerekanye ko uwo yashinjwaga kwica akiriho.

Gusubirishamo urubanza ingingo nshya ntibirubuza kurangizwa, keretse iyo iryo rangizwa ryahagaritswe n’urukiko rwaregewe gusubirishamo urubanza ingingo nshya. Urubanza ruciwe ku kirego cyo gusubirishamo urubanza ingingo nshya, ntirwemera inzira z’ubujurire izo ari zo zose uretse kurusubirishamo ku mpamvu z’akarengane.

Igihe ntarengwa cyo kuregera gusubirishamo urubanza ingingo nshya rwaciwe burundu ni amezi abiri (2) kuva igihe impamvu ituma urwo rubanza rusabirwa gusubirwamo yabonekeye.

5. GUSUBIRISHAMO URUBANZA INGINGO NSHYA KU MPAMVU Z’AKARENGANE

Gusubirishamo urubanza ingingo nshya ku mpamvu z’akarengane bikorwa iyo hari impamvu zikurikira:

Iyo urubanza rwaciwe hagaragayemo ruswa, itonesha cyangwa ikimenyane, iyo umucamanza yafashe icyemezo atagendeye ku byo amategeko ateganya, n’iyo urubanza rwaciwe rutarangijwe neza.

Ikirego cyo gusubirishamo urubanza ingingo nshya ku mpamvu z’akarengane gitangwa mu gihe cy’iminsi 30 uhereye igihe ababuranyi bamenyesherejwe icyemezo cy’urukiko. Iki kirego mbere cyatangwaga mu rwego rw’Umuvunyi ariko ubu gitangwa mu rukiko rukuru (High Court).

Ubu ni uburyo ushobora gukoresha mu gihe cyose waba utishimiye imikirize y’urubanza cyangwa se wahuye n’akarengane mu manza z’inshinjabyaha. Ubutaha tuzareba n’uburyo bwo kujurira buteganywa n’amategeko mu manza mbonezamubano (Civil Cases) aho kuri ubu ho hanakoreshwamo uburyo bwo ‘gutambamira urubanza’.

Ubu buryo ntabwo umuntu ari we ubwihitiramo gusa aba agomba kugendera ku mpamvu ziteganwa n’amategeko kugira ngo ikirego gitanzwe hifashishijwe ubu buryo kigire agaciro.

Mu gutegura iyi nkuru, twifashishije itegeko igihugu cy’u Rwanda gisanzwe kigenderaho nk’itegeko Nº 027/2019 ryo ku wa 19/09/2019 Itegeko ryerekeye imiburanishirize y’imanza z’inshinjabyaha.

Shakisha izindi nkuru
kigalitoday android app mobile

Ibitekerezo   ( 1 )

Muraho neza?nagirango muzatubarize mugihe umuntu runaka yafungisha mugenzi we,nyuma bikagaragara ko ari umwere kucyaha aregwaho ,uwo wamureze amubeshyera ateganyirizwa ibihe bihano?murakoze .

Alias yanditse ku itariki ya: 18-03-2021  →  Musubize

Ohereza igitekerezo

Igitekerezo cyanyu kiragaragara kuri Kigali Today nyuma y'isuzuma kandi mu gihe kidatinze. Udashaka ko izina ryanyu rimenyekana wakoresha alias, Turabashimiye.

Amakuru aheruka