Menya igihe uwakoze icyaha adahanwa, n’uburyo bwo kwiregura bufasha benshi gutsinda imanza

Imbere y’amategeko ahana y’u Rwanda no mu mategeko mpuzamahanga, icyaha ni igikorwa kibujijwe n’itegeko cyangwa kwanga gukora igitegetswe ku buryo bihungabanya umutekano mu bantu kandi hari itegeko ribiteganyiriza igihano, amategeko agira n’ihama rigira riti nta cyaha nta gihano, nyamara ariko nubwo amategeko ahana icyaha hari igihe uwakoze icyaha adahanwa imbere y’amategeko.

Kigali Today yateguriye abasomyi bayo igihe uwakoze icyaha adahanwa n’ubwiregure busanzwe buzwi mu mategeko bufasha abantu gutsinda imanza cyangwa bakagabanyirizwa igihano bitewe n’uburyo icyaha cyakozwemo.

Mu itegeko riteganya ibyaha n’ibihano muri rusange rya 2018 mu ngingo ya 86 itegeko riteganyamo igihe uwakoze icyaha adashobora kuryozwa icyaha.

1.Gukoreshwa icyaha ku gahato (Duress)

umuntu yakoreshejwe icyaha ku ngufu cyangwa ku gahato atashoboraga kwigobotora icyo gihe itegeko rikuraho uburyozwacyaha.

Amategeko y’urwanda n’imbere y’amategeko mpuzamahanga mu manza nshinjabyaha hateganya ko bavuga ko umuntu yakoze icyaha ku gahato iyo kudakora icyo cyaha byashoboraga kumugiraho ingaruka zikomeye cyangwa zikaba ku bagize umuryango we cyangwa undi muntu w’inshuti ye. Urugero izo ngaruka zishobora kuba urupfu n’izindi.

Ubu bwiregure bwashingiweho mu rubanza rwa Jovan Babic na Erdomovic aho umunyamategeko wa Eridomovic yavuze ko umukiliya we yahatiwe gukora icyaha ndetse abwirwa ko natagikora azicwa bituma nawe yica abahigwaga mu gihe cy’intambara yari mu cyahoze ari yougoslavia yaje no kuvamo jenoside y’aba Serbe cyangwa iya Srebrenica.

Urukiko mpuzamahanga mpanabyaha rwashyiriweho icyahoze ari Yougoslavia ICTY rwaje kumva impamvu ze bavuga ko ubwo bwiregure bufite ishingiro maze igihano yari yahawe kiragabanwa gishyirwa ku myaka 5 y’igifungo.

Mu mategeko urukiko mpuzamahanga rwa ICC rukurikiza avuga ko ubu bwiregure gusa bub iyo usabwa gukora icyaha byashoboraga kumuviramo ingaruka zikomeye igihe atabikoze , aha ariko runasaba ubushishozi abantu bakabanza kureba igikwiriye kuko biba bishoboka ko hari n’igihe wakwanga kubikora ntugire icyo uba.

2. Icyaha cyakozwe ku bwo kubaha amabiwirza y’ugukuriye (Superior orders)

Kwiregura witwaje ko wakoze icyaha biturutse ku mabwiriza y’umuntu wari ugukuriye utagombaga gusuzugura biremerwa ariko imbere y’amategeko mpuzamahanga ntibivanaho ko uwakoze icyaha adahanwa nko mu byaha by’intamabara, jenoside cyangwa ibyaha byibasiye inyoko muntu. Icyo bifasha nuko uwakoze icyaha aba ashobora kugabanyirizwa igihano. Urugero umusirikari ukoze icyaha biturutse ku mabwiriza y’umusirikari mukuru umukuriye mu kazi.

Aha ariko bisaba uwo musirikari kugaragaza nanone ko iyo yanga gukora icyo gikorwa hari izindi ngaruka yari guhura na zo.

Mu mategeko agenga ICTR na ICTY (Inkiko zashyiriweho uRwanda n’icyahoze ari Yugoslavia) mu ngingo ya 7 n’iya 6 havuga ko ubu bwiregure butavanaho guhanirwa icyaha cyakozwe ahubwo ko igikurikizwa gusa ari uko haba hashobora kubaho kugabanyirizwa igihano.

Imbere y’urukiko mpuzamahanga mpanabyaha ICC ubu bwiregure ho bwemerwa ku kigero cyo hasi nk’iyo wagaragaje ko hari itegeko ryagusabaga kubaha amabwiriza y’ugukuriye , iyo ugaragaje ko ibyo yagusabye gukora utari uzi niba ari icyaha ncdetse n’iyo ibyo yagusabye bitari icyaha icyo gihe.

Urugero aha nko ku rugamba umusirikari aba agomba kubaha amabwiriza y’umusirikari umukuriye ariko nanone ntabwo aba agomba kwitwara nka robo(Robot) cyangwa imashini idatekereza , aba agomba kwitwara nk’umuntu. Mu mategeko y’urwanda no mu mategeko mpuzamahanga abasirikari cyangwa abanda bantu bagira ababakuriye babaha amabwiriza bashishikarizwa kubanza gutekereza mbere yo kugira icyo bakora.

Urugero ntabwo umuntu yaguha amabwiriza ngo ugende wice impinja nawe uhite ujya kubikora kandi uzi ko ari icyaha, uba ugomba kubanza gutekereza.

Mu mategeko y’Urwanda ingingo ya 86 mu itegeko ritaganya ibyaha n’ibihano muri rusange rya 2018, mu mpamvu zikuraho uburyozwa cyaha n’iyi irimo aho igira iti “umuntu akoze igikorwa ategetswe n’umuyobozi wemewe n’amategeko, uretse igihe icyo gikorwa bigaragara ko kinyuranye n’amategeko” iki gihe habaho kuvaho k’uburyozwa cyaha (Criminal responsibility)

3. Ubusazi cyangwa ubundi burwayi bwo mu mutwe (Insanity)

Uburyozwacyaha buvaho igihe cyose uwakoze icyaha yabitewe n’uburwayi bwo mu mutwe cyangwa yagikoze afite uburwayi bwo mu mutwe butuma atarabashaga kugira ubushonozi bwo gutekereza neza.

Ingingo ya 86 mu itegeko riteganya ibyaha n’ibihano mu Rwanda ivuga ko ushinjwa iyo yari afite uburwayi bwo mu mutwe mu gihe yakoraga icyaha izimpamvu zikuraho uburyozwacyaha, aha ariko bisaba kugaragazwa na raporo ya muganga . ikindi bigasaba ko icyo gihe icyaha cyabaga yari afite urwo burwayi, uramutse ukoze icyaha ukagira ibyo bibazo nyuma waramaze gukora icyaha amategeko ntavanaho uburyozwacyaha.

Ubu buryo busanzwe bunazwi mu mategeko nk’ubwiregure bwa M’Naughton bwatangiye gukoreshwa bwa mbere imbere y’urukiko rwa Nuremberg urukiko mpuzahanga mpanabyaha rwa mbere rwabayeho ku isi ngo rucire imanza aba Nazi bakoze jenoside y’abayahudi n’ibyaha by’intambara nyuma y’intambara ya kabiri y’isi yose.

Bwakoreshejwe mu rubanza rwa Rudolf Hess ufatwa nka ba ruharwa muri jenoside yakorewe abayahudi, uyu mugabo yireguye avuga ko ibyo yakoze byose yabitewe n’ubusazi gusa ntabwo byashoboye kumenyekana koko niba yari umusazi nubwo mu rubanza rwe yagaragazaga imyitwarire y’ubusazi.

Rudolf Hess yahamijwe n’urukiko rwa Nuremberg ibyaha bya Jenoside, ibyaha byibasiye inyoko muntu n’ibyaha by’intambara akatirwa igifungo cya burundu, mu 1987 yaje kwiyahura afite imyaka 93 agwa muri gereza nyuma yo kunanirwa kwakira ubuzima yabagamo.

Ubu bwiregure bwanashingiweho n’urukiko rwashyiriweho icyahoze ari Yougoslavia

mu rubanza rwahuzaga ubushinjacyaha na Pavle Strugar. Bwanashingiweho mu rubanza rw’umugore Ieng Thirith wagize uruhare mu kwica abantu benshi mu cyahoze ari Cambodge. Uyu mugore abamwunganira bavuze ko yari umusazi ndetse ibyinshi yabitewe n’ubusazi maze bazana abaganga bo ku musuzuma basanga yari umusazi urukiko rutegeka ko arekurwa akitabwaho mu buryo abarwayi bo mu mutwe bitabwaho.

Haba mu Rwanda no mu mastegeko mpuzamahanga ubu buryo bwemerwa gusa iyo uwakoze icyaha yagikoze mu gihe yari afite ubwo burwayi , iyo bwatumaga atabasha gutekereza neza, ngo amenye ibyo agiye gukora .

4. Kwiregura witwaje ko wirwanagaho (Self-defense)

Ntabwo habaho uburyozwacyaha iyo umuntu wakoze icyaha yagikoze yirwanaho nk’uko ingingo ya 86 mu itegeko riteganya ibyaha n’ibihano muri rusange mu Rwanda ibiteganya. Aha umuntu ashobora kwirwanaho igihe atewe n’abajura cyangwa n’abandi bantu bagamije kumugirira nabi. Ashobora kubukoresha arwana ku muntu uri mu kaga . itegeko riteganya ko ubu buryo bukoreshwa aha hakurikira:

A) Yirukana uwinjiye ahantu hatuwe aciye icyuho, yakoresheje ingufu cyangwa uburiganya;
B) ahanganye n’abajura cyangwa abandi bagizi ba nabi.
C) igikorwa cyo kwirwanaho yugarijwe n’amakuba;
D) igikorwa cyo kurwana ku wundi muntu wugarijwe n’amakuba;
E) igikorwa cyo guhagarika icyaha cyo konona umutungo awurwanaho.

Aha ariko kugirango ubwo bwiregure bwemerwe ntihabeho uburyozwacyaha, uwakoze icyaha abitewe na ziriya mpamvu zavuzwe haruguru agomba kuba yakoresheje uburyo butarenze kure uburemere bwo kwitabara cyangwa ubw’amakuba yari amwugarije cyangwa yari yugarije undi muntu yarwanagaho cyangwa bwo guhagarika konona umutungo yarwanagaho.

Urugero umuntu agukubise urushyi ukamurasa ntabwo wavuga ko wabikoze wirwanaho , umuntu aje kwiba afite ikibando ukamurashisha imbunda ntabwo wavuga ko wabikoze wirwanaho kuko yari kukugirira nabi , ariko umuntu aje kukwiba yitwaje imbunda ukamutanga yari agiye kukurasa ukamurasa ntabwo habaho uburyozwacyaha. Ikindi umuntu aje kukwiba ukamurasa yageze hanze y’inzu (yagiye) uba ukoze icyaha.

Mu mategeko mpuzamahanga naho niko bigenda uwakoze icyaha aba agomba kugaragaza ko yagikoze yirwanaho kubera ubuzima bwe bwari buri mu kaga, atabara undi muntu cyangwa arinda umutungo wari ugiye kwangizwa, aha naho uwakoze icyaha iyo yakoresheje imbaraga z’umurengera ntabwo havaho uburyozwacyaha.

5. Uburyo bwo kwiregura buzwi nka “Alibi” cyangwa “Sinari mpari”

Alibi (Sinari mpari) ni uburyo mu mategeko bukoreshwa aho uregwa yiregura atanga amakuru agaragaza ko atari ari aho icyaha aregwa cyabereye igihe cyabaga , ubu buryo kugirango bwemerwe bisaba ibimenyetso ndetse n’abatangabuhamya bo kubihamya.

Iyo uvuze ko utari uhari ubushinjacyaha nabwo buba bugomba kwerekana ibimenyetso bigaragaza ko wari uri ahabereye icyaha igihe cyabaga.

Urugero umushinjacyaha agushinjije icyaha ukagaragaza ko igihe cyakorwaga wari uri hanze y’igihugu ndetse ukagaragaza tike y’indege n’abatangabuhamya bakubonyeyo utsinda urubanza hagendewe kuri ubu bwiregure.

Ubu buryo bwakoreshejwe mu manza 2 zabereye I Arusha mu rubanza rwa Generali Gratien Kabirigi na Protais Zigiranyirazo.

Protais Zigiranyirazo wahoze akomeye ku butegetsi bwa Habyarimana Juvenal dore ko yari na muramu we akaba yaranabaye purefe wa Ruhengeri, yafashwe ashinjwa kugira uruhare muri genocide yakorewe Abatutsi mu Rwanda.
Yari Yarakatiwe gupfungwa imyaka 20 aregwa kugira uruhare muri Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi muri Mata 1994 nyuma aza kujurira mu cyumba cy’ubujurire agirwa umwere ararekurwa.

Protais Zigiranyirazo, uzwi kw’ izina rya "Z"akaba yari muramu wa nyakwigendera Prezida Juvenl Habyarimana, yaramaze imyaka irenga umunani i Arusha, aho yajanywe afatiwe mu Bubiligi. Aregwa ibyaha birimo gushumura igitero cyishe abatutsi barenga igihumbi, Biciwe mu misozi bari bahungiyemo, guhemba abantu bashyize imitego ku mihanda(roadblock), no gucukura ibinogo byo gushyiramo abicwaga.

Ubwo urubanza rwa Protais Zigiranyirazo rwabaga abatangabuhamya bamushinje ko yagize uruhare mu bikorwa byo kwica abatutsi mu cyahoze ari Gisenyi no mu gace ko mu Kiyovu mu mujyi wa Kigali. Mr Z afatanije n’uwamwunganiraga babashije kwemeza urukiko ko aho bamushinja yakoreye ibyaha hose atigeze agerayo kuko ku italiki bamushinjagaho yari I Kanombe mu rugo rwa Muramu we Habyarimana Juvenal.

Abatangabuhamya 9 bose batanze ubuhamya ko babonye Protais Zigiranyirazo I Kanombe ku munsi n’amasaha ubushinjacyaha bwavugaga ko yagiye mu byo kwica abatutsi mu cyahoze ari Gisenyi .

Abatangabuhamya bamushinjaga bo ntibabashije guhuza kubyo bavugaga ko yaba yaragiyeyo maze mu cyumba cyubujurire (Appeal Chamber) urukiko rwari ruyoboye n’umucamanza Theodomir Melon rwanzura ko atsinze kuri “Alibi” runategeka ko ahita arekurwa .

Ntabwo ari Protais Zigiranyirazo gusa wagizwe umwere hifashishijwe ubwiregure bwa Alibi (Sinari Mpari) kuko na General de Brigade Gratien Kabiligi, wari umuyobozi w’ibikorwa bya gisilikari byose by’ingabo z’igihugu EX FAR yagizwe umwere nawe nyuma yuko agaragaje ko amataliki n’isaha bamushinjkagaho kugira uruhare mu bikorwa bya jenoside yakorewe abatutsi yari hanze y’igihugu mu mahugurwa.

6. Ubuhumane (Intoxication)

Nk’uko biteganywa n’ingingo ya 86 y’itegeko riteganya ibyaha n’ibihano muri rusange Uwitesheje ubwenge yabishatse mu gihe cyo gukora icyaha aryozwa icyaha yakoze n’ubwo yaba yaritesheje ubwenge atagambiriye gukora icyaha.

aha urugero umuntu ashobora kunywa ibiyobyabwenge cyangwa inzoga nyinshi agata ubwenge mu gihe cyo gukora icyaha. Iyo ariwe ubyikoresheje ntabwo bivanaho ko aryozwa icyaha yakoze.

Iyo umuntu ahumanyijwe n’abandi bafite intego yo kumukoresha icyaha iki gihe itegeko rivuga ko impamvu z’uburyozwacyaha zivaho.

Mu mategeko mpuzamahanga nabwo iyi mpamvu yemerwa gusa iyo uwakoze icyaha yahumanijwe bidaturutse kuri we ubwe , iyo byangije ubushobozi bwe mu mitekereze bigatuma atamenya ko ibyo agiye gukora bitemewe n’amategeko bikamubuza kugenzura imyitwarire ye.

Izo mpamvu twagarutseho ni impamvu zituma hatabaho uburyozwacyaha , Impamvu zikuraho uburyozwacyaha, n’ubwiregure busanzwe bukoreshwa mu manza nshinjabyaha.

Izindi mpamvu ziteganywa mu Rwanda ni umwana ukoze icyaha ari munsi y’imyaka 14 y’amavuko. Birazwi ko imyaka y’uburyozwacyaha mu Rwanda ari imyaka guhera kuri 14 kuzamura, umwana ukoze icyaha ari munsi y’imyaka 14 ntabwo ashobora gufungwa ariko iyo hari ibyo yangije ntibikuraho ko ababyeyi be babiriha cyangwa bagatanga indishyi kuri byo.

Indi mpamvu iteganywa n’itegeko ni umuntu ukoze icyaha kubera kwibeshya bidashidikanywaho haba ku ngingo y’itegeko cyangwa ku gikorwa iyo uko kwibeshya gukuraho burundu ubushake bwo gukora icyaha.

Ubu buryo tugarutseho sibwo bwo nyine butuma hatabaho uburyozwacyaha cyangwa bukuraho uburyozwacyaha gusa kuko mu mategeko hari izindi mpamvu n’ubwiregure (Criminal defense) busanzwe bukoreshwa mu manza haba mu Rwanda no ku rwego mpuzamahanga , ubutaha tuzanagaruka no ku bundi buryo busanzwe bukoreshwa.

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JADO yanditse ku itariki ya: 18-06-2021  →  Musubize

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