Dore ibyo ukwiye kumenya kuri gahunda ya VUP kugira ngo ikunganire, ikwigishe, iguhe inguzanyo (Igice cya kabiri)

Mu rwego rwo kurandura ubukene bukabije mu Rwanda bitarenze umwaka wa 2024 binyuze muri gahunda zitandukanye zirimo iy’ingenzi izwi nka VUP (Vision Umurenge Program), Ikigo gishinzwe Guteza imbere Imishinga y’Inzego z’Ibanze(LODA) cyashyizeho ibigenderwaho (inkingi) byatuma abaturage bo mu ngo zifite amikoro make basezera ku bukene byihuse.

Twifashishije inyandiko za LODA zisobanura inkingi zigize VUP, turabagezaho igice cya kabiri kigaragaza ibishingirwaho kugira ngo umuturage abe umugenerwabikorwa wa VUP.

Mu gice cya mbere twasobanuye inkingi enye z’uburengezi (VUP safety net components) zifasha abafite amikoro make kubona iby’ibanze bakeneye mu mibereho yabo. Ubu turabagezaho igice cya kabiri gisobanura izindi nkingi enye zishimangira ubufasha bwatanzwe mbere, kugira ngo umuturage ashobore gucika ku bukene mu buryo burambye.

Izi nkingi zashyiriweho kunganira iz’uburengezi (Livelihoods Enhancement) ni imirimo ishingiye kuri serivisi z’ingo mbonezamikurire, kwigisha imyuga, kunganirwa mu mitungo ibyara inyungu, na serivisi z’amafaranga zikubiyemo inguzanyo ziciriritse, ndetse n’ubukangurambaga mu mikoreshereze y’amafaranga no gutegura imishinga.

1)IMIRIMO ISHINGIYE KURI SERIVISI Z’INGO MBONEZAMIKURIRE

Ingo mbonezamikurire zashyiriweho gufasha ababyeyi baturuka mu ngo ziri mu bukene bukabije kubona uburyo buboneye bwo kwita ku bana babo mu gihe bari mu kazi.

Umwana utoranywa kurererwa muri bene izi ngo mbonezamikurire agomba kuba afite hagati y’ imyaka ibiri n’itandatu y’ubukure. Aba mbere bahabwa amahirwe ni abana bava mu miryango iri mu bukene bukabije.

Urugo mbonezamikurire rw
Urugo mbonezamikurire rw’abana bato rufashwa na VUP

Ababyeyi bazana abana mu rugo mbonezamikurire babikora ku bushake, bamaze gusobanurirwa no kumva neza ingaruka nziza zirimo, ndetse n’uruhare rwabo.

Buri rugo mbonezamikurire rwakira abana bari hagati ya 10 na 15, icyakora uyu mubare ukaba ushobora kwiyongera hangendewe ku bunini bw’ahantu n’umubare w’abarezi b’abana.

Buri rugo mbonezamikurire rwakira abana b’umudugudu umwe cyangwa ibiri yegeranye, bitewe n’umubare w’imiryango yujuje ibisabwa kandi ibishaka.

Gutoranya abarezi b’abana bato muri iyi gahunda

Umurezi w’abana bato atoranywa hagendewe ku kuba ari uwo mu miryango y’abagenerwabikorwa ba VUP. Agomba kuba yujuje ibi bikurikira: a) abarizwa mu nkingi y’imirimo y’amaboko yoroheje ihemberwa, kandi afite umwana ufite kuva ku myaka ibiri kugeza kuri itandatu;

b) Kuba ari inyangamugayo; c) kuba azwiho gukunda abana; d) kuba atarigeze agaragararwaho n’icyaha cyo guhohotera abana cyangwa abandi bantu e) kuba afite imyaka 18 ariko atarengeje 64 f) kuba yemejwe n’ababyeyi bagize urugo mbonezamikurire rushamikiye kuri VUP; g) kuba atuye mu ntera itarengeje ibirometero bibiri uhereye aho urugo mbonezamikurire rwubatse;

h) Kuba ari urubyiruko, umukobwa watewe inda akiri muto ataragize amahirwe yo gusubira mu ishuri, uturuka mu rugo ruri mu bukene bukabije; i) urugo ruri mu bukene bukabije rufite abana bari mu kigero cy’imyaka 2-6 na rwo rutoranywamo aba barezi.

2)KWIGISHA IMYUGA

Iyi nkingi igamije gufasha abagenerwabikorwa ba VUP kwiga imyuga ituma babasha kwihangira imirimo ndetse no kugera ku iterambere rirambye.

Abagenerwabikorwa b’iyi gahunda ni ababarizwa mu miryango ikennye bafite ubushobozi bwo kuba bakwiga umwuga kandi bakawubyaza umusaruro.

Abagenerwabikorwa b’iyi gahunda batoranywa bate?

Abagenerwabikorwa b’imyuga binyuze muri VUP batoranywa hagendewe ku byagaragajwe mu gihe cyo gukusanya amakuru ku byo umuryango wifuza (profiling needs), aho umuntu umwe mu muryango aba agomba kuba agaragaza ubushake n’ubushobozi bwo kuba yakwigishwa kandi akabibyaza umusaruro.

VUP yafashije Umuturage kubona imashini idoda
VUP yafashije Umuturage kubona imashini idoda

Umugenerwabikorwa yemerezwa mu Nteko Rusange y’Umudugudu hamaze gusuzumwa niba ibyo umuryango wasabye bigifite ireme. Hagenderwa kandi ku rutonde rw’abagenerwabikorwa barimo guhabwa inkunga yo kurengera abatishoboye, ndetse no ku byifuzo bagaragaje.

Inteko Rusange y’Umudugudu ni yo yemeza ku rwego rwa mbere urutonde rw’abafashwa kwiga imyuga. Mu gihe ubushobozi buhari budahagije, abatoranywa mbere ni abagore, abafite ubumuga, ndetse n‘abakiri bato (bafite imyaka 16-30), bose bafite ubushobozi bwo kwiga umwuga basabye.

Ni ibiki umugenerwabikorwa w’imyuga afiteho uburenganzira?

Umugenerwabikorwa wemerewe kwiga umwuga afite uburenganzira kuri ibi bikurikira: i) Amafaranga y’ishuri; ii) Amafaranga y’urugendo; iii) ibikoresho by’ishuri; iv) guhugurwa mu gihe kiri hagati y’amezi atatu (3) n’atandatu (6).

Icyakora ibikenewe byose bimaze kuvugwa ntibigomba kurenza amafaranga ibihumbi magana atatu (300,000). Amatsinda y’abahinzi na yo ashobora guhugurwa hifashishijwe iyi ngengo y’imari nk’uko biteganywa n’amabwiriza.

Ni iyihe myuga abagenerwabikorwa bemerewe guhitamo?

Abagenerwabikorwa bagirwa inama yo guhitamo imyuga itanga serivisi zikenewe ku isoko ry’umurimo kandi yemewe n’urwego rw’igihugu rushinzwe guteza imbere ubumenyi ngiro.

Ni izihe nshingano z’umugenerwabikorwa wiga imyuga binyuze muri VUP?

Inshingano z’umugenerwabikorwa w’iyi gahunda ziri mu ngeri eshatu: i) Kwirinda gusiba amasomo; ii) gufata neza ibikoresho by’ishuri; iii) gukora uko ashoboye akabyaza umusaruro ubumenyi yahawe.

3) KUNGANIRA ABAGENERWABIKORWA MU MITUNGO IBYARA INYUNGU

Kunganira abagenerwabikorwa mu mitungo ibyara inyungu (Productive Asset Transfer) ni inkingi ikubiyemo ibikorwa bigamije kwihutisha gahunda yo kwivana mu bukene ku miryango itishoboye, no kongera inkomoko y’aho ikura iby’ibanze nkenerwa mu buzima.

Abemerewe guhabwa imitungo ibyara inyungu ni aba bakurikira: a) ingo ziri mu bukene bukabije zisanzwe zibona ubufasha muri gahunda zo kurengera abatishoboye, kandi zifite ubushobozi n’ubushake bwo kubyaza umusaruro umutungo bahawe.

b) Mu gukora intonde z’abagenerwabikorwa, hibandwa ku miryango ifite ubushobozi bwo kuba yabyaza umusaruro iyo mitungo kurusha abandi.

Inama Rusange y’Umudugudu ni yo yemeza kandi igatondeka abagenerwabikorwa bakwiriye guhabwa imitungo ibyara inyungu.

Imitungo ibyara inyungu itangwa iba ifite agaciro kangana gate?

a) Hatangwa umutungo ubyara inyungu utarengeje amafaranga y’u Rwanda ibihumbi mirongo inani (80,000 Frw), hamwe n’amafaranga ibihumbi mirongo itanu (50,000 Frw) yo gufasha mu kubyaza umusaruro uwo mutungo (running cost), ndetse abagenerwabikorwa banahabwa ubujyanama bubafasha gukoresha neza iyi mitungo.

Icyitonderwa ni uko iyo ikiguzi cy’umutungo ubyara inyungu kirengeje amafaranga yateganyijwe, hifashishwa ayateganyirijwe kubyaza umusaruro uwo mutungo.

Ni iyihe mitungo ibyara inyungu ishobora gutangwa?

Imitungo ibyara inyungu ishobora gutangwa muri iyi gahunda ni iyi ikurikira: a) Amatungo magufi (ihene, intama, ingurube, inkwavu, inkoko n’ibindi); b) Ibikoresho byo guteza imbere ubuhinzi n’ubworozi (imbuto, ifumbire); c) Ibikoresho byo gutunganya umusaruro: d) Ibikoresho by’ubuhinzi n’ubworozi (ipombo, ingorofani, ibikoresho byo kuhira, amasuka n’ibindi); e) Ibikoresho byifashishwa ku bize imyuga itandukanye (ubudozi, ububaji, ubwubatsi, gusudira, guteka, n’ibindi).

Icyitonderwa ni uko gutanga amatungo magufi bigomba kubanzirizwa no guteganya ikiraro, imiti ndetse n’ibizatunga amatungo yatanzwe. Nanone bitewe n’uko kwita ku ngurube bigoranye, hatangwa imwe ikuze neza yaba ibwegetse bikaba akarusho. Naho iyo ari ihene cyangwa intama, hatangwa ebyiri zikuze neza, zaba zihaka na byo bikaba akarusho. Mu gihe ari inkoko, cyangwa inkwavu, hagenderwa ku bushobozi umugenerwabikorwa afite bwo kuzorora ndetse no ku bushobozi bwagenewe umuryango.

Uwahawe umutungo ubyara inyungu afite inshingano zo kuwufata neza ndetse no kuwubyaza umusaruro uko bikwiye.

4) SERIVISI Z’AMAFARANGA (INGUZANYO ZICIRIRITSE, UBUKANGURAMBAGA MU MIKORESHEREZE Y’AMAFARANGA NO GUTEGURA IMISHINGA)

Iyi nkingi igamije gufasha Abanyarwanda bafite amikoro make gukorana n’ibigo by’imari, bagatinyuka kwegera no gukorana n’ibyo bigo ndetse bakanoroherezwa kubona inguzanyo ziciriritse ku nyungu ntoya, bityo bakabasha kugerwaho n’izindi serivisi zose zitangwa n’ibigo by’imari harimo no kwizigamira.

Iyi nkingi ya serivisi z’amafaranga igamije kandi guhugura abagenerwabikorwa ku micungire y’imari n’uburyo bwo gushora amafaranga mu mishinga iciriritse ibyara inyungu yabafasha kwiteza imbere.

Abagenerwabikorwa ba serivisi z’amafaranga batoranywa mu ngo zikennye cyane, bakaba ari abantu ku giti cyabo, amatsinda n’amakoperative. Abagore n’urubyiruko ni byo byiciro byitabwaho by’umwihariko.

Abagenerwabikorwa bujuje ibisabwa batoranywa mu bagize umuryango cyangwa bamwe mu baturage bafite ubushobozi bwo gukora. Abatishoboye muri bo hamwe n’abakomoka mu ngo zikennye, ni bo bitabwaho mbere y’abandi.

Ingo cyangwa abantu ku giti cyabo bashobora kuba bari hejuru gato y’umurongo w’ubukene ariko bakaba bafite imbogamizi zishobora kuba zabasubiza mu bukene bukabije na bo bashobora gushyirwa mu mubare w’abagenerwabikorwa.

Cyakora abaturage badashoboye gukora na gato kubera izabukuru, abana, cyangwa abafite ubumuga bukabije ntibemerewe guhabwa iyi serivisi.

Imishinga ihabwa inguzanyo yemezwa ite?

Imishinga ihabwa inguzanyo yemezwa na Komite y’Umurenge ishinzwe inguzanyo ihagarariwe n’Umunyamabanga Nshingwabikorwa, igihe ari inguzanyo y’umuntu ku giti cye cyangwa itsinda.

Inguzanyo ya koperative yemezwa bwa nyuma na Komite tekiniki yo ku rwego rw’Akarere igashyirwaho umukono n’Umunyamabanga Nshingwabikorwa w’Akarere.

Umubare ntarengwa w’amafaranga atangwamo inguzanyo

Abantu ku giti cyabo, amatsinda yujuje ibisabwa ndetse n’amakoperative bashobora gutanga dosiye isaba inguzanyo kandi umubare w’amafaranga y’inguzanyo basaba ugomba kuba ukwiranye n’umushinga bateganya gukora. Imbonerahamwe igaragaza umubare ntarengwa w’inguzanyo kuri buri cyiciro.

Imbogamizi zatuma gahunda ya VUP itagera ku ntego zayo mu gihe cyateganyijwe

Umuyobozi Mukuru w’Ikigo Gishizwe Guteza Imbere Ibikorwa by’Iterambere mu Nzego z’Ibanze (LODA), Madamu Nyinawagaga Claudine avuga ko nubwo hari abaturage bamaze guhindura imibereho biturutse kuri gahunda ya VUP, hari n’abandi bizihirwa no gukomeza gufashwa bumva ko Leta yakomeza kubakorera byose.

Imbogamizi nyamukuru ishingiye ku myumvire y’abagenerwabikorwa. Madamu Nyinawagaga arakebura abakoresha nabi amafaranga y’inkunga y’ingoboka cyangwa abahemberwa imirimo y’amaboko n’abagurisha amatungo bakajya kunywa inzoga, ko bakwiye kumenya ko atari uko bizahora.

Umuyobozi wa LODA agira ati: “Umuntu kuba yugurisha itungo cyangwa kutaryitaho, kujyana amafaranga yahawe mu kabari, akomeza kuguma muri wa mubare w’abafashwa, umuryango ntutere imbere”.

Nyinawagaga avuga ko ibikorwa n’imishinga bya VUP byajyaga bishyirwa ahantu hadakwiye, ariko ubu byatangiye kujya bibanza gukorerwa inyigo, mu rwego rwo kwita ku buziranenge no kurengera ibidukikije, ibi bikaba bitarakorwaga mu myaka ibiri ishize.

Umunyamabanga wa Leta muri Minisiteri y’Ubutegetsi bw’Igihugu (MINALOC), Madamu Ingabire Assumpta avuga ko muri iki gihe abaturage batazongera gufatwa nk’abagenerwabikorwa ahubwo bazaba abafatanyabikorwa, kugirango bo ubwabo ndetse rw’abaturanyi (community) bagire uruhare mu bibakorerwa.

Minisitiri Ingabire ati “Leta ntacyo itakora kugira ngo utere imbere, ariko iyo nawe ntacyo ukora byaba ari impfabusa”.

Hashingiwe ku bushakashatsi ku mibereho y’ingo “EICV2” bwakozwe n’Ikigo cy’Ibarurishamibare (NISR) muri 2007, icyo gihe ubukene bukabije bwari ku rugero rwa 38%; ariko nyuma y’uko hagiriyeho gahunda ya VUP, “EICV5” yakozwe muri 2017 yagaragaje ko ubukene bukabije mu Rwanda bwari busigaye ku gipimo cya 16%.

Icyifuzo kiri muri gahunda y’Igihugu ni uko ubukene bukabije mu Rwanda bwazaba buri ku rugero ruri munsi ya 1% mu mwaka wa 2024.

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