Iterambere rya Kigali: Kuva ku nzu ya Kandt kugera kuri Kigali City Tower

Kigali Today yifuje kubagezaho amwe mu mateka y’uburyo Umujyi wa Kigali wagiye uturwa, guhera ku nzu ya mbere ya kijyambere yabayeho mu Rwanda n’aho yari iherereye, kugera ku muturirwa wa mbere muremure witwa Kigali City Tower.

Inzu yitiriwe Rezida wa mbere w
Inzu yitiriwe Rezida wa mbere w’Umudage mu Rwanda, Richard Kandt ni yo yabaye iya mbere igezweho yubatswe mu Rwanda

Dusubiye inyuma mu mateka, bivugwa ko Umwami w’u Rwanda witwaga Cyilima Rugwe wategetse mu myaka ya 1345-1378, ngo yageze ku musozi wa Kigali, yitegereje igihugu aravuga ati “Igihugu ni kigari”, bihera ubwo aka gace ka teritwari cyangwa intara yitwaga Bwanacyambwe haba Kigali.

Iterambere ry’imiturire muri Kigali ni urugendo rwatwaye imyaka 100, kuko inzu ya mbere ya kijyambere yubatswe mu mwaka wa 1907, iya nyuma ndende kugeza ubu ikaba yaratangiye kubakwa mu mwaka 2006 yuzura muri 2011 (iyi ni Kigali City Tower).

Mbere ya 1907, Abarabu n’Abahinde baturukaga muri Afurika y’Uburasirazuba kuva mu kinyejana cya 19 (mu myaka ya 1800), bakaza kugura impu i Kigali, bakazijyana ku mugabane wa Aziya bazinyujije ku byambu bya Mombasa muri Kenya na Dar es Salaam muri Tanzania.

Abadage baje no kubaka isoko ry
Abadage baje no kubaka isoko ry’impu ahubatswe isoko rya Nyarugenge kuri ubu

Muri icyo gihe umuntu wari umukire ku rwego rukomeye nk’Abahinde n’Abarabu, ngo yari afite inzu yubakishijwe amadebe, nk’uko bisobanurwa n’umusaza Ausi Majuto, mwene Majuto wabaye mu ba mbere batuye Umujyi wa Kigali.

Uyu musaza ufite imyaka 104, avuga ko yavutse asanga se ari umwe mu bakire bari batuye mu nzu y’amadebe, ahubatswe karitsiye Mateus, bakaba bari baturanye n’Abarabu barimo uwitwaga Hussein n’ubu ugifite inzu ikorerwamo ubucuruzi imbere y’isoko rya Nyarugenge.

Umusaza Ausi Majuto ni umwe mu bavukiye ahari karitsiye Mateusi, bakaba baraje kwimurirwa mu Biryogo
Umusaza Ausi Majuto ni umwe mu bavukiye ahari karitsiye Mateusi, bakaba baraje kwimurirwa mu Biryogo

Ausi Majuto agira ati “Nkivuka inzu twari dutuyemo zari ibyatsi, umuntu wari ukomeye yubakishaga amadebe, yafataga idebe (ry’amavuta) akarirambura akagenda aryomekeranya n’irindi”.

Inzu ifatwa nk’iya kijyambere kuri ubu igomba kuba yubakishijwe amabuye n’utubuye duto tuvanze na sima harimo n’ibyuma (beton), amatafari ahiye, hejuru ikaba isakaje amabati cyangwa amategura, ndetse ikaba ikingishijwe inzugi z’ibyuma.

Mu mwaka wa 1898, Umudage witwaga Richard Kandt, yaje mu Rwanda ashakisha isoko y’uruzi rwa Nili, ayisanga mu rusobe rw’imigezi ituruka mu ishyamba rya Nyungwe. Ngo yasubiye iwabo muri 1902 baza kumwohereza gukoloniza u Rwanda mu 1907.

Umukozi w’Ikigo cy’Ingoro z’Umurage w’u Rwanda, ishami ryitiriwe Kandt i Kigali, Bizimana Jeremie, akomeza avuga ko uwo Mudage ngo ari we wazanye iterambere mu Rwanda, akaba ari na we wubakishije inzu ya mbere igezweho yaje kumwitirirwa, kugeza n’ubu ikaba ikiriho.

Inzu ya Kandt Abadage bayubakanye n
Inzu ya Kandt Abadage bayubakanye n’izindi nyinshi zaje gusenywa muri 1916

Bizimana agira ati “Kuva muri 1907 ni bwo inzu ya mbere yubatswe mu mujyi wa Kigali, ikaba ari iyi yitiriwe ‘Kandt’, ariko hari n’andi mazu menshi y’ubutegetsi bw’Abadage yaje kubakwa akaba yari agize umudugudu witwaga ‘Boman Kigali’.

Ayo mazu yari ay’ubutegetsi bw’Abadage, yaje gusenywa n’Ababiligi muri 1916 mu ntambara ya mbere y’isi, hakaza gusigara iyi yonyine.

Bavuga ko icyatumye Kandt ahitamo ko Kigali iba umurwa mukuru w’u Rwanda, ngo yasanze ituwe n’abantu 2,000, muri bo 420 bari abanyamahanga, Abadage bari icyenda, abandi bari Abahinde n’Abarabu, abasigaye 1,580 ni bo bari Abanyarwanda”.

Abakoroni b’Abadage baje bazanye n’abapadiri bera, bahita banubaka Kiliziya yitiriwe Umuryango Mutagatifu (Sainte Famille) ku muhima, mu mwaka wa 1913.

Sainte Famille, imwe muri Kiliziya zubatswe mbere mu Rwanda
Sainte Famille, imwe muri Kiliziya zubatswe mbere mu Rwanda

Nyuma y’intsinzi y’Ababiligi mu ntambara ya mbere y’isi, ni bwo haje kubakwa ibiro bya teritwari ya Bwanacyambwe mu mwaka wa 1922 ahubatswe ibiro by’Umujyi wa Kigali kuri ubu, nyuma y’imyaka umunani mu 1930, ku Muhima haje kubakwa gereza ya mbere yari izwi ku izina rya 1930.

Mu myaka irindwi yakurikiyeho mu mwaka wa 1937 ku ngoma y’Umwami Rudahigwa, ni bwo kwimura abaturage ku bw’inyungu rusange byabayeho bwa mbere, himurwa abaturage b’abayisilamu bari batuye ahari karitiye Mateusi bajya i Nyamirambo mu Biryogo.

Aba barimo uwo twavuze witwaga Majuto se wa Ausi, bakaba barimuwe kugira ngo aho bari batuye muri Mateusi hashyirwe inzu z’ubucuruzi, kuri ubu zigenda zisimbuzwa amagorofa gahoro gahoro.

Inzu ya Hussein muri Karitsiye Mateusi, iri mu za mbere z
Inzu ya Hussein muri Karitsiye Mateusi, iri mu za mbere z’ubucuruzi zubatswe mu Rwanda

Imiturire, ubutegetsi ndetse n’ubucuruzi byakomeje kwizingira ku musozi wa Nyarugenge ugizwe n’uduce twa Muhima, Kiyovu, Cyahafi, Gitega, Biryogo, Rwezamenyo na Nyamirambo, kugeza mu gihe cy’ubwigenge mu mwaka wa 1962.

Nyuma y’imyaka ibiri mu 1964, ngo ni bwo utundi duce tuhakikije nka Kimisagara, Kacyiru, Gikondo, Remera, Kanombe na Kimihurura, twaje guturwa tubimburiwe n’ishuri ryitwa IFAK ry’abapadiri b’Abaseleziyani, ryubatswe ku Kimihurura habanje gutemwa ishyamba ry’inzitane ry’amahwa yitwa imihurura.

Icyo tutareka kuvuga muri iyi nkuru, ni uko radio Rwanda kuri ubu ikorera mu nyubako igezweho ku Kacyiru, ngo yatangiye ikorera mu kazu gato kari kubatswe mu marembo y’ibitaro bya CHUK mu mwaka wa 1963.

Biryogo, umudugudu wa mbere wimuriwemo abaturage ku bw
Biryogo, umudugudu wa mbere wimuriwemo abaturage ku bw’inyungu rusange mu mwaka wa 1937

Umujyi wa Kigali ufite ubuso bwa kilometero kare 730 (km2), bivugwa ko wari utuwe n’abaturage 6,000 mu mwaka wa 1962, ariko ibarura ryo muri 2012 ryagaragaje ko wari ugeze ku baturage barenga miliyoni imwe, baje bagura imiturire mu misozi ya Jabana, Mont Kigali, Masaka, Rusororo, Kimironko, Nyarutarama, Kibagaba, Kinyinya, Gisozi, Kagugu n’ahandi.

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