Menya inkomoko y’inkingo, uburyo zitangwa n’abo zigenewe

Ikigo cy’Igihugu cyita ku Buzima (RBC), gikomeje gahunda yo kongerera ubumenyi abanyamakuru kuri gahunda y’inkingo, mu rwego rwo gufasha Abanyarwanda kurushaho gusobanukirwa neza akamaro kazo.

Inkingo zirinda abana indwara nyinshi
Inkingo zirinda abana indwara nyinshi

Ni nyuma y’uko hirya no hino ku isi hakomeje kugaragara ibyorezo, birimo na COVID-19 yaje itunguranye ihungabanya ubukungu bw’isi, nyuma y’uko habonetse urukingo rwayo, bamwe babanza kumva nabi akamaro karwo.

Mu mahugurwa yo ku itariki 20-23 Ukuboza 2022 yaberaga mu Karere ka Musanze, yitabiriwe n’abanyamakuru bakabakaba 30 bo mu bitangazamakuru binyuranye mu Rwanda, basobanuriwe byimbitse amakuru ajyanye n’akamaro k’inkingo, imikoreshereze yazo n’ibindi.

Mu biganiro byatanzwe na Hakizimana Jean de Dieu na Kabanyana Grâce, bamwe mu mpuguke za RBC muri gahunda y’inkingo, bagaragaje uburyo u Rwanda rushimwa n’amahanga muri gahunda yo gufata inkingo, aho 96% bakingirwa, mu gihe ku rwego rw’Isi abadakingirwa bagera kuri 20%, bivuze 1/5.

Bavuga ko RBC ihora ishishikariza abaturage kudacikanwa n’inkingo, babyaza amahirwe bafite yo kuba Leta y’u Rwanda izibagurira ku giciro kinini bakazifata nta kiguzi.

Muri ayo mahugurwa, n’ubwo hatangazwa ko ubushakashatsi ku nkingo bwatangijwe n’Umugereki Hippocrates mu myaka 400 mbere y’ivuka rya Yezu, ubushakashatsi bwimbitse ku nkingo bwatangiye mu 1796, aho impuguke Dr Edward Jenner yakoreye ubushakashatsi bw’indwara y’ubushita bw’inka (Cowpox) ku mwana witwa James Philip, ariko gahunda y’inkingo yatangijwe mu Rwanda mu 1980.

Ni nabwo yavumbuye urukingo rw’indwara y’ubushita (Smallpox), rukumira iyo ndwara yari itangiye kwibasira abantu.

Ni nyuma y’uko muri 1721 uwitwa Lady M. Wortley yari yarakomeje ubwo bushakashatsi ngo avumbure urwo rukingo, aho yakoreraga igerageza ku bana be.

Mu 1806, havumbuwe urukingo rwa Typhoïd, naho mu 1886 Louis Paster, avumbura urukingo rw’ibisazi by’imbwa.

Ubushakashatsi ku nkingo bwakajije umurego mu 1918-1919, ubwo Isi yari yugarijwe n’icyorezo cy’ibicurane (Spanish Flu), havumburwa urukingo nyuma y’uko iyo ndwara yari imaze guhitana abari hagati ya miliyoni 20-50, ikaba indwara yasize amateka akomeye.

Inkingo zakomeje kuvumburwa, aho mu 1937 havumbiwe urwa Yellow Fever, 1939 havumburwa urwa Kokorishe (Pertussis), 1955 Umunyamerika Jonas Salk avumbura urukingo rw’imbasa (Polio), nyuma y’uko rugeragerejwe ku bana bangana na miliyoni 1,3 barimo Abanyarwanda, abarundi n’abanyekongo mu 1954.

Mu 1960 Albert Sabin yavumbuye urukingo rwa kabiri rw’imbasa rutangwa mu buryo bw’igitonyanga, naho mu 1967 World Health Organisation (WHO) ushyiraho icyumweru cy’ubuzima bw’umwana n’umubyeyi, ahakingiwe umubare minini w’abana kw’Isi.

Uje gukingiza umwana abanza kwandikwa umwirondoro
Uje gukingiza umwana abanza kwandikwa umwirondoro

Mu 1971, havumbuwe urukingo rutangirwa hamwe rw’iseru, mu 1978 mu Rwanda hatangira gahunda y’inkingo, aho rwatangiye gutangwa mu 1980, mu gihe mu 1988 hatangijwe gahunda yo kurandura burundu imbasa mu bana.

Mu 1999, hatangijwe urukingo rw’impiswi, 2006 hatangijwe urukingo rw’inkondo y’umurara (HBV), mu gihe muri 2021 hatangijwe urukingo rwa COVID-19.

Gahunda y’inkingo mu Rwanda ihagaze ite?

N’ubwo u Rwanda rutaravumbura inkingo, ariko biragaragara ko hari icyizere aho mu cyanya cy’inganda i Masoro, hari kubakwa ikigo kizatunganyirizwamo inkingo z’ikingira indwara zirimo na Maralia.

Mu gihe u Rwanda rushimirwa kuba umubare w’abadafata inkingo uri hasi 4%, ugereranyije n’imibare fatizo ku ruhando mpuzamahanga aho abadafata inkingo bagera ku muntu 1/5, imibare y’abana badafata inkingo, irazamuka cyane cyane mu bihugu byugarijwe n’intambara, ibyorezo n’ibindi.

Mu nkingo zigera kuri 20 zitangwa hirya no hino ku Isi, ubu izitangwa mu Rwanda ni 12, zirimo iz’igituntu, imbasa, akaniga, iseru, impiswi, umwijima ndetse na tetanus ku bagore batwite, COVID-19 n’izindi.

Mu kumenya neza uburyo izo nkingo zitangwa, abanyamakuru basuye Ikigo nderabuzima cya Muhoza mu Karere ka Musanze, baganira n’abaforomo bashinzwe kwakira abaza gufata inkingo.

Musabyimana Immaculée yabwiye Kigali Today ko umubyeyi utwite akimara kubimenya, asabwa gufata inkingo eshanu z’agakwega (tetanus), aho urwa mbere arufata akimara kumenya ko atwite.

Umubyeyi asabwa kugaruka mu minsi 28 agahabwa urundi rukingo, akibutswa kugaruka mu mezi atandatu agafata urundi, nyuma y’umwaka asabwa kuza gufata urukingo rwa kane, hashira undi mwaka akagaruka agafata urwa gatanu.

Yampiriye Solange, Umuyobozi wungirije w
Yampiriye Solange, Umuyobozi wungirije w’ikigo nderabuzima cya Muhoza

Muganga Musabyimana, avuga no ku nkingo zihabwa umwana umaze kuvuka, aho ahita akingirwa imbasa n’igituntu.

Arongera ati “Ku kwezi n’igice (ibyumweru bitandatu) umwana akingirwa inkingo umunani zirimo imbasa, kokorishe, agakwega akaniga, hepatite B, ibicurane, umusonga n’impiswi, aho inkingo eshanu ziba zikomatanyirijwe mu rushinge rumwe (Pentavalent/5 in1)”.

Muganga Musabyimana, avuga ko mu mezi abiri n’igice (ibyumweru 10), umwana afata izindi nkingo umunani.

Ngo no ku mu mezi atatu n’igice (ibyumweru 14), ku nkingo z’umwana hiyongeraho urw’Imbasa rushimangira, aho rutangwa mu rushinge.

Mu mezi atandatu umwana afata urundi rukingo rw’igitonyanga rwa Vitamini A, ku mezi icyenda agakingirwa iseru na Rubéole aho aterwa urushinge. Mu gihe mu mezi 12, umwana ahabwa ikinini cy’inzoka (Mebendazole).

Ku mezi 15 umwana ahabwa urukingo rw’iseru na Rubeole mu rushinge, hakaba n’urukingo rwa Canser y’inkondo y’umura ruhabwa abakobwa bafite imyaka 12.

Mu kurushaho kubungabunga ubuzima, ikingira (vaccination) rihuzwa no kwita ku mirire (Nutrition) hagaburwa indyo yuzuye, gupima ibiro hagamijwe kumenya neza imikurire y’umwana n’ibindi.

Yampiriye Solange, Umuyobozi wungirije w’ikigo nderabuzima cya Muhoza, arishimira uburyo abaturage bivuriza muri icyo kigo bitabira gahunda y’inkingo, abibutsa ko n’ubwo indwara zimwe zisa n’izacitse, badakwiye kwirengegiza gahunda yo gufata inkingo.

Ati “Inkingo zagize akamaro, twahoraga tubona abana bafite iseru, diyare, umusonga ariko ubu zaragabanutse ku buryo bufatika, ubu ntiwabona ufite tetanus kandi kera zari nyinshi, ntiwabona umwana urwaye igituntu, mugiga yo yabaye amateka. Inkingo zifite akamaro niyo mpamvu dukomeje gushishikariza abaturage kuzifata uko bikwiye”.

Mudahinyuka Bunane wari wazanye umwana we w’uruhinja kumukingiza ati “Naje gukingiza umwana wanjye, umugore nabonye atameze neza ndamuzana kandi nta pfunwe binteye, twarajijukiwe twamenye neza akamaro k’urukingo, birinda abana indwara”.

N
N’abagabo bavuga ko bamaze kumenya ibyiza byo gukingira abana babo aho bafasha abagore

Kugeza ubu u Rwanda rwamaze kwesa umuhigo rwihaye wo kuba umubare w’abadafata inkingo utagomba kurenga 5%, ubu ukaba uri kuri 4%, mu gihe umuhigo ku rwego rw’Isi ari ukutarenga 10%.

Abantu bagera kuri miliyoni hagati y’ebyiri n’eshatu buri mwaka, bakagombye kugira ubumuga buterwa n’indwara zimwe na zimwe ubu ni bazima kubera ko bafashe inkingo.

Ni mu gihe abagera kuri miliyoni 1.5 buri mwaka inkingo zibarinda urupfu, kugeza ubu indwara 20 ku Isi akaba arizo zishobora kwirindwa hifashishijwe inkingo.

Byagaragaye ko inkingo zitanzwe nabi zigira ingaruka ku bazifata, ni muri urwo rwego impuguke za RBC zigira inama abatanga inkingo yo kwakira neza uje gufata urukingo, aho agomba kuruhabwa abyishimiye nta gahato kandi yumva neza impamvu zarwo, ndetse yishimiye aho arufatira n’umuganga urumuha, mu rwego rwo kumurinda ingaruka rushobora kumugiraho.

RBC kandi isaba ko mu gihe uhawe urukingo agaragaje ibimenyetso by’ingaruka zarwo ku mihindagurikire y’umubiri, basuzuma neza impamvu yabyo byaba na ngombwa bakamurinda gufata urundi.

RBC yahuguye abanyamakuru ku bijyanye n
RBC yahuguye abanyamakuru ku bijyanye n’inkingo
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