Impamvu eshanu Covid-19 itica abantu benshi muri Afurika nko ku yindi migabane

Ibihugu byinshi byo muri Afurika byashimiwe kuba byaragize uruhare runini mu kurwanya ikwirakwizwa rya Coronavirus nubwo bizwiho kuba bifite gahunda z’ubuvuzi zidateye imbere, ibikorwa remezo bya za Leta bidahari, n’aho biri byarasenyutse ibindi bitujuje ubuzirange.

Ishusho igaragaza uko impfu ku migabane zihagaze
Ishusho igaragaza uko impfu ku migabane zihagaze

Uyu mugabane utuwe n’abaturage barenga miliyari imwe, ufite abarwayi bagera muri miliyoni eshanu n’ibihumbi magana atanu 1.5M, nk’uko amakuru n’icyegeranyo byakozwe na kaminuza ya John Hopkins bibyerekana.

Kugeza magingo aya ku mugabane wa Afurika icyorezo cya Coranavirus cyahitanye abantu barenga ibihumbi mirongo itatu na birindwi (37,000), ugereranyije n’ibihumbi birenga magana atanu na mirongo inani (580,000) bishwe na covid19; muri Leta zunze ubumwe za Amerika.

Mu Burayi, covid-19 imaze kwica abarenga ibihumbi magana abiri na mirongo itatu 230,000, yahitanye kandi abarenga ibihumbi magana abiri na bitanu 205,000 muri Aziya.

Iyi mibare y’impfu zo muri Afurika iri hasi cyane ugereranyije n’u Burayi, Aziya cyangwa Amerika, aho ndetse bikomeje kugaragara ko muri Afurika icyorezo kiri kugabanuka ku rwego rushimishije.

Ubushakashatsi buherutse gukorwa ku mugabane n’ikigo cy’ubufatanye bushingiye ku bimenyetso byegeranyijwe ku cyorezo Covid-19 “Partnership for evidence based on Response to Codi PERC”, bwerekanye ko umubare w’impfu kuri Covid-19 muri Afurika uri munsi y’uumubare w’impfu zabonetse ahandi hose ku isi.

Bwerekana ko ibyago bitakomeye kandi ibyavuyemo bitabaye bibi cyane mu baturage ba Afurika. Ubushakashatsi bukorwa hagendewe ku imibare y’ibigo byigenga ndetse n’ibigengwa na za Leta.

Umuyobozi w’ikigo cya Afurika gishinzwe kurwanya no gukumira indwara n’ibyorezo (Afurika CDC), Dr John Nkengasong, yatangaje ko igipimo cy’ibijyanye no kwipimisha bikomeje kubera imbogamizi ikomeye ku gisubizo mu kurwanya icyorezo ku mugabane, ariko yongeraho ko nanone nta kimenyetso cyerekana ko umubare munini w’impfu za Covid-19 zahishwe, cyangwa zitaburuwe.

None ni izihe mpamvu zituma umubare w’impfu ugabanuka muri Afurika ?

1. Gushaka byihuse igisubizo

Ubwo umuntu wa mbere wanduye coronavirus yagaragaraga kuri uyu mugabane, yabonetse mu mu Misiri ku ya 14 Gashyantare 2020. Hari ubwoba ko virusi nshya yashoboraga guhita irenga ubushobozi bw’inzego z’ubuzima n’ubuvuzi zifatwa nk’izidashinga ugereranyije no ku iyindi migabane ku mubumbe.

Kuva mu ntangiriro, guverinoma nyinshi zo muri Afurika zahise zitangira gufata ingamba zikomeye zo kugerageza kugabanya ikwirakwizwa rya virusi.

Ingamba z’ubuzima rusange, zirimo kwirinda guhana ibiganza cyane nko mu kuramukanya bahererekanya intoki, gukaraba intoki kenshi, kubahiriza ibijyanye no guhanahana intera hagati y’abaganira cyangwa aho abantu bakoranira no kwambara agapfukamunwa, byose byatangijwe vuba byihuse mu bihugu byinshi.

Ibihugu bimwe nka Lesotho byo bishimirwa cyane kuba byarashyize mu bikorwa ingamba zo kurwanya iki cyorezo nta muntu wanduye uragaragara ku butaka bwabyo.

Lesotho yashyizeho ibihe bidasanzwe hashyirwaho ingamba zihuse zirimo no gufunga amashuri yose mu gihugu ku ya 18 Werurwe 2020, ijya mu kato k’ibyumweru bitatu.

Nyuma y’iminsi 10 ni bwo n’ibindi bihugu byo mu majyepfo ya Afurika byatangiye kubona ko icyorezo gikomeye bitangira umurongo w’ubwirinzi.

Ibikorwa birimo n
Ibikorwa birimo n’iby’insengero byatangiye gufungurwa

Ariko iminsi mike nyuma y’ifungwa ry’ibikorwa byose, mu ntangiriro za Gicurasi, Lesotho ni bwo yatangiye kubona abantu banduye. Mu baturage barenga miliyoni ebyiri, kugeza ubu imaze kubarura abarwayi 1,700 ba covid-19 n’abapfuye 40.

2. Ubufasha bw’abaturage

Mu bushakashatsi bwakorewe mu bihugu 18 muri Kanama n’ikigo PERC, inkunga rusange ku ngamba zo kwirindira umutekano hagati y’abantu yari iri hejuru cyane, ku kigereranyo cya 85% by’ababajijwe bavuze ko bambaye agapfukamunwa mbere y’uko virusi itangira kugaragara mu bihugu byabo.

Raporo yagize ati “Hamwe n’ingamba zikomeye z’ubuzima rusange n’izo kugenzura imibereho y’abaturage, ibihugu bigize Umuryango w’Ubumwe bw’Ibihugu bya Afurika byatangiye kwandura iyi virusi hagati ya Werurwe na Gicurasi 2020”.

Aho ibihugu byinshi byatangiye korashya ingamba muri Kamena na Nyakanga kuva icyo gihe, hagabanutse cyane umubare w’abanduye n’impfu zemejwe hafi muri kimwe cya kabiri cy’ibihugu bigize umugabane.

3. Umuryango mugari ugizwe n’abakiri bato mu myaka

Imyaka y’abaturage mu bihugu byinshi bya Afurika na yo ishobora kuba yaragize uruhare mukurinda ikwirakwizwa rya Covid-19.

Ku isi hose, benshi mu bapfuye bafite imyaka irihejuru ya 80, mu gihe Afurika ituwe n’abafite impuzandengo y’imyaka 19, nk’uko imibare y’Umuryago w’Abibumbye ibigaragaza.

Ishami ry’Umuryango w’Abibumbye ryita ku Buzima (OMS) ryagize riti “Icyorezo cyagaragaye mu bagize amatsinda y’imyaka mike ahanini bakiri bato, abarenga kuri 91% banduye Covid-19 muri Afurika yo munsi y’Ubutayu bwa Sahara bari mu bantu bari munsi y’imyaka 60, naho ngo hejuru y’iyo myaka, ni ukuvuga bageze mu zabukuru, abarenga 80% bakaba batarigeze bagaragaza ibimenyetso”.

Ubusanzwe Afurika ifite abafite imyaka mike kurusha Amerika n’u Burayi.

Dr Matshidiso Moeti, umuyobozi wa OMS muri Afurika, yagize ati “Dufite (muri Afurika) abaturage bagera kuri 3% bafite imyaka iri hejuru ya 65”.

Ugereranyije, u Burayi, Amerika ya Ruguru hamwe n’ibihugu bikize bya Aziya bifite abaturage biganjemo abashaje.

Dr Moeti yongeyeho ati “Icyatije umurindi ubwandu mu bihugu by’iburengerazuba ni uko abantu bageze mu za bukuru babaga mu ngo zihariye bagenerwa, ibi byabaye intandaro yo kwandura no gupfa kuri beshi. Izi nzu ni gake zigaragara mu bihugu byinshi bya Afurika, aho usanga abantu bakuze baba mu bice by’icyaro”.

Afurika ifite abakiri abato kurusha Amerika n
Afurika ifite abakiri abato kurusha Amerika n’u Burayi

Ni ihame mu bihugu byinshi bya Afurika abantu batangiye kugera mu myaka y’ubukure n’iyo kwerekeza mu kiruhuko cy’izabukuru usanga basubira kuba mu cyaro mu gihe basezeye ku kazi mu mijyi.

Ubucucike bw’abaturage mu cyaro buri hasi, bityo gukomeza no kubahiriza intera hagati y’abatuye muri ibyo bice biroroshye cyane.

Byongeye kandi, gahunda z’ubwikorezi bw’abantu mu mamodoka muri Afurika zidateye imbere mu bihugu no hagati y’ibihugu, bigaragara ko byabaye umugisha mu bihe bibi, kuko benshi bakoresha amaguru mu bice batuyemo mu ngendo.

Bishatse kuvuga ko Abanyafurika badakunda gukora ingendo nk’uko abantu babikora mu bihugu bifite ubukungu bwateye imbere cyane, ibi ngo bituma abantu bategerana cyane.

4. Ikirere cyiza

Ubushakashatsi bwakozwe n’abashakashatsi bo muri kaminuza ya Maryland muri Amerika, bwerekanye isano iri hagati y’ubushyuhe, ubuhehere n’uburebure, mu gukwirakwira kwa Covid-19.

Umushakashatsi mukuru, Mohammad Sajadi yagize ati “Twarebye ikwirakwizwa (rya virusi) hakiri kare mu mijyi 50 yo ku isi. Iyi virusi yari ifite igihe cyiyorohereza gukwirakwira mu bushyuhe buri hasi no mu gihe cy’ubukonje”.

Akomeza agira ati “Ntabwo ari uko idakwirakwira mu bindi bihe, ikwirakwira neza iyo ubushyuhe n’ubuhere bigabanutse, hajeho ubukonje budasanzwe”.

Ibihugu bya Afurika biri kure y’ikirere cyo muri (tropical) uburwayi bwari bwifashe nabi.

Ikwirakwizwa rya virusi ryihuse cyane muri Afurika y’Epfo mu gihe igice cy’ isi yo mu majyepfo cyagiye mu gihe cy’itumba n’ubukonje, ari na yo mpamvu Afurika y’Epfo igize hafi kimwe cya kabiri cy’impfu ku Mugabane wa Afurika, aho ari cyo gihugu kiza ku mwanya wa mbere mu kugira abishwe na covid ugereranyije n’ibindi bihugu.

5. Gutinya no kumenyera ibyorezo mu myaka yabanje

Icyorezo cya Covid-19 cyaje mu gihe Repubulika Iharanira Demukarasi ya Kongo yari ihanganye n’ikibazo gikomeye cya Ebola. Ibihugu bihana imbibi byari maso, kandi isuzuma ry’ubuzima n’ubwirinzi bwo kurwanya Ebola byakomeje kongerwa kugeza icyorezo cya Covid-19 gitangiye.

Ibihugu byinshi byo muri Afurika y’Iburengerazuba, byahanganye n’icyorezo cya Ebola ku isi kuva mu mwaka wa 2013-2016, byanize ingamba z’ubuzima rusange no kwirindira umutekano mu byoreozo byakoreshejwe mu gukumira Covid-19, harimo guha akato abanduye, gukurikirana abahuye n’abanduye bagashyirwa mu kato mu gihe bari gupimwa, ngo byari bimenyerewe mu gukurikirana ibyorezo ku Mugabane wa Afurika.

Ibihugu bya Afurika byamenyereye ibyorezo, harimo na Ebola
Ibihugu bya Afurika byamenyereye ibyorezo, harimo na Ebola

Byongeye kandi, muri Leta ituwe cyane muri Afurika, (Nigeria) na RDC, amatsinda y’abaganga yagiye mu midugudu gukingiza abana indwara y’igicuri na mugiga, yahise yongera kwifashishwa mu mugambi wo kwigisha abaturage icyorezo gishya cya coronavirus.

Mu gihe rero ibikorwa remezo by’ibitaro muri Afurika byinshi bidateye imbere cyane ugereranyije no mu bindi bice by’isi, imbaraga z’umugabane zashyizwe muri gahunda z’ubukangurambaga mu baturage, ngo byagize umumaro bitewe n’uko abaturage bari barumvise kenshi ibyorezo bikomeye bihitana abantu, n’ubwirinzi rusange butangirirwa aho mu kubirinda gukwira.

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