Wari uzi ko mu buzima bwa buri munsi ugengwa n’amasezerano uba wikoreye?

Mu buzima bwa buri munsi muntu agengwa n’amasezerano yaba ayo aba yakoze abizi cyangwa atabizi akaba ashobora no kumugiraho ingaruka mu rwego rw’amategeko. Ni yo mpamvu tugiye kurebera hamwe icyo amategeko y’u Rwanda ateganya ku bijyanye n’amasezerano.

Urugero rworoheje ni uko iyo winjiye muri taxi uba ugiranye amasezerano n’umushoferi ugutwaye nubwo ntayo muba mwasinyanye mu buryo bufatika.

Hari amasezerano ugira n
Hari amasezerano ugira n’umuntu (yanditse cyangwa atanditse) akaba yakugiraho ingaruka mu nkiko.

Mu gusobanura aya mategeko turiyambaza amagombo amwe n’amwe mu ndimi z’amahanga kuko ari zo zikungahaye mu magombo agize amategeko muri rusange (cyane cyane urw’icyongereza nu urw’igifaransa nk’idimi zikoreshwa mu gihugu cyacu).

Mu rwego rwo kumvikanisha kurushaho amategeko agenga amasezerano, by’umwihariko tukaba tuza kwifashisha imyandikire isanzwe imenyerewe mu by’amategeko dufasha abakoresha ururimi rw’Ikinyarwanda kuyumva kurushaho.

Kugira ngo byumvikane neza turifashisha imanza zaciwe mu bihugu bitandukanye aho bibaye ngombwa tugereranye n’ amategeko agenga amasezerano y’u Rwanda n’andi mategeko y’ibindi bihugu.

Ni ibiki bisabwa by’ibanze mu ikorwa ry’amasezerano?

Ingingo ya 4 y’itegeko No 45/2011 ryo ku wa 25/11/2011 rigenga amaserano mu Rwanda igaragaza urutonde rw’ibisabwa kugira ngo amasezerano abe yujuje ibisabwa. Ibyo ni ibi bikurikira:

1° kwemeranya kw’impande zigirana amasezerano ari cyo bita ’’mutual assent’’ mu rurimi rw’Icyongereza cyangwa se ’’consentement mutuel ’’ mu Gifaransa;
2° ubushobozi bwo gukora amasezerano ari cyo bita ’’capacity to contract’’ cyangwa se ’’capacité de contracter’’;
3° ishingiro ry’amasezerano ari cyo bita ’’object matter of the contract ’’ cyangwa se ’’objet du contrat’’
4° impamvu yemewe n’amategeko ’’licit cause’’ cyangwa se ’’cause licite’’.

Kwemeranya kw’impande zigirana amasezerano

Mbere yo gushyira umukono ku masezerano ubusanzwe impande zombi zibanza kumvikana nta gahato ku kigiye gukorerwa amasezerano. Buri ruhande rugomba kugaragaza ubushake bwo gukora amasezerano. Icyo bita mu cyongereza ’’ meeting of the minds”. Ugenekereje ni uguhura ku ubushake bw’abifuza kugirana amasezerano.

Meeting of the minds bikomoka mu magambo y’ikilatini ariyo agregatio mentium. Mu rurimi rw’Igifaransa byitwa accord des volontes. Ikintu kigaragaza ko ubushake bwabayeho ni nko gushyira imikono ku masezerano ku mpande zombi.

Amasezerano rero iyo amaze gushyirwaho imikono ashobora gukoreshwa mu nkiko mu gihe haramutse habayeho impaka.

Gusa, amesezerano yose si ko ari ngombwa ko aba yanditse. Abantu bashobora kugirana amasezerano atanditse kandi akagira agaciro nk’ayanditswe bitewe n’uko ibyo abantu bumvikanye byakomeje gushyirwa mu bikorwa igihe kirekire hashingiwe ku masezerano atanditse azwi n’impande zombi.

Icyakora, hari igihe amasezerano ategurwa n’uruhande rumwe urundi ruhande rwabishaka rugasinya cyangwa ntirusinye. Ayo maseszerano yitwa’’ adhesion contract’’ mu Cyongereza cyangwa se ’’contract d’adhésion’’ mu Gifaransa.

Urugero ni nk’amasezerano y’ubwishingizi. Amasezerano nk’aya aba ashingiye ku ihame rivuga ngo ’’ fata cyangwa urorere’’ , mu cyongereza ni ‘take it or leave it’. Aya masezerano ntabwo akorwa ku gahato.

Gusa aba ateguwe ni uruhande rumwe, urundi ntacyo rwahinduraho, kabone n’iyo rwaba rwifuza ko hagira icyo ruhinduraho.

Iyo habayeho amasezerano nta bushake, hakoreshejwe igitugu cyangwa hashingiwe ku makosa runaka nta gaciro ayo masezerano aba afite.

Ubushobozi bwo gukora amasezerano

Umuntu ukora amasezeraro ni umuntu amategeko abihera ububasha. Ni muri urwo rwego umuntu amategeko afata nk’umwana iyo asinye masezerano nta gaciro ahabwa.

Amasezerano ntasinywa n
Amasezerano ntasinywa n’ubonetse wese. Hari ibishingirwaho n’ababyemererwa n’amategeko.

Hari kandi igihe amategeko ashobora kwambura umuntu ububasha bwo gukora amasezerano runaka . Icyo bita mu Cyongereza ’’to deprive a person of his capacity’’ cyangwa se ’’incapacité de jouissance’’ mu Gifaransa.

Amategeko ashobora kwemeza ko umuntu akorerwa amasezerano n’undi muntu. Uwo muntu ashobora kuba ari umubyeyi we cyangwa undi wemejwe n’amategeko ( tuteur/ guardian). Ni icyo bita mu Gifaransa ’’incapacité d’exercice’’. Ubu buryo bwo gahagararirwa bukunze gukoreshwa mu mategeko agenga abantu n’umuryango cyangwa ’’law of persons and family law’’ mu Cyongereza.

’’Incapacité d’exercice’’ ivugwa ku bantu bafite ibibazo byo mu mutwe badafite ubushobozi bwo kwitekerereza no kwifatira ibyemezo.

Abantu basesagura mu buryo bukabije iyo bigaragaye bafatirwa ibyemezo n’inkiko byo kutemererwa gukora amaserano ayari yo yose yateza ibibazo bikomeye byerekeranye n’umutungo.

Ku mwana, ni ukuvuga umuntu utarageza imyaka y’ubukure (21) mu Rwanda. Uyu ntiyemerewe gukora amasezerano. Urugero amasezerano yo gutanga ariyo bita ’’donation’’ mu cyongereza no mu gifaransa ntabwo yemerewe kuyakora.

Twavuga na none abantu basinya amasezerano batabifitiye ububasha. Urugero umuntu ashobora gusinya amasezerano nk’uhagarariye sosiyeti kandi mu by’ukuri atari we atanabiherewe ububasha bikanemezwa na noteri.

Ayo masezerano ntabwo yemewe. Ni cyo bita gukora amasezerano ’’ ultra vires’’ (beyond their powers).

Ishingiro ry’amasezerano

Kugira ngo amaserano abeho, hagomba kubaho ikintu ashingiyeho. Iki kintu kigomba kuba cyemewe n’amatetegeko aricyo bita’’ lawful object’’ mu cyongereza cyangwa ’’objet licite’’ mu Gifaransa.

Igishingirwaho mu masezerano kigomba kuba kizwi (determined/determiné) cyangwa gishobora kumenyekana (determinable/déterminable). Ingano (quantity/quantité) cyangwa ubwiza bwacyo na bwo bugomba kumenyekana (quality/ qualité).

Byumvikane neza rero ko amasezerano ashingiye ku kintu kibujijwe nko kugurisha abantu, urumogi n’ibindi atemewe ari cyo bita ’’void contract ’’ mu Cyongereza.

Impamvu yemewe n’amategeko

Abantu bakunze kwitiranya ishingiro ry’amasezerano n’impamvu y’amasezerano. Amasezerano yose agira impamvu ituma abaho. Buri ruhande (party/partie) ruba rufite icyo rushaka kugeraho.

Amasezerano ashingira kuri ibyo buri ruhande rushaka kugeraho. Icyo buri ruhande rwifuza guhabwa . Icyo bita ’’consideration’ mucyongereza muri ’’ common law’’. Buri ruhande hari icyo ruba rutegereje kurundi ruhande. Nkuko byavuzwe rero iyo mpamvu igomba kuba itanyuranya n’amategeko.

Ngibyo muri make ibisabwa kugira ngo amasezerano abe yujuje ibisabwa. Tuzakomeza kurushaho kubisobanukirwa uko tuzagenda dusesengura amategeko agenga amasezerano.

Igice gikurikira kizibanda ku bintu abantu bakora mu buzima busanzwe bakoranye amasezerano n’abo babikorana nyamara bo batazi ko bafitanye amasezerano ashobora no kwifashishwa mu nkiko bibaye ngombwa.

P.Habimana

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Ibitekerezo   ( 2 )

Murakoze,ariko nimugerageze kwihutisha icyo give gikurikiraho maze dusobanukirwe kurushaho ibijyanye n’amasezerano.Ese impande ebyili zikoranye amasezerano hifashishijwe ikaramu maze hakabaho kuyasinya ariko umwanditsi wazifashije kuyandika n’ikaramu we ntayasinyeho,ago masezerano afire agaciro kayo kandi aburaho isinyatire y’umwanditsi? Nimudusubize.Murakoze

Soyinka yanditse ku itariki ya: 23-11-2017  →  Musubize

Iyi nyandiko ni nziza ryose turayishyigikiye uzakomeze

humuriza yanditse ku itariki ya: 4-03-2015  →  Musubize

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