Ni ryari nemerewe kuzungura cyangwa kwamburwa ubwo burenganzira?

Kuzungura ni uguhabwa uburenganzira n’inshingano ku mutungo n’imyenda by’uwapfuye. Guhera ku munsi izungura ryatangiriyeho, umuzungura, yaba uzungura ku bw’irage cyangwa ku bw’itegeko yitwa umuzungura iyo abyemeye.

Ese bigenda gute mu mategeko kugira ngo umuntu agire uburenganzira bwo kuzungura cyangwa abwamburwe? Ese uwazimiye na we ashobora kuzungura iyo agifatwa nk’ukiriho? Hakorwa iki mu gihe izungura ridafite ba nyiraryo?

Ibi byose Kigali Today yabikusanyirije abasomyi bayo mu rwego rwo kubafasha kurushaho kumenya ibyo amategeko ateganya ku gikorwa cy’izungura.

Igikorwa cyo kuzungura gitangira iyo uzungurwa amaze gupfa, kikabera aho yari atuye cyangwa yabaga. Iyo habayeho kuzimira cyangwa kubura, izungura ritangizwa n’urubanza rutangaza urupfu rw’uwazimiye cyangwa rw’uwabuze.

Icyakora, izungura ry’abashyingiranywe ritangira ari uko bombi bapfuye cyangwa umwe yongeye gushyingirwa, keretse iyo itegeko ribiteganya ukundi.

Inama y’umuryango ni yo ishinzwe gukemura impaka cyangwa ibibazo mu muryango byerekeranye n’izungura, mbere y’uko bishyikirizwa Komite y’Abunzi cyangwa urukiko rubifitiye ububasha.

Ntawe uhatirwa kwemera kuzungura cyangwa gufata indagano yagenewe. Uzungura wese afite uburenganzira bwo kwemera cyangwa kwanga indagano. Kwemera izungura cyangwa indagano bikorwa ku mugaragaro. Iyo uzungura atagize icyo avuga kandi yaramenyeshejwe ko ari mu bazungura, bifatwa nk’aho yemeye kuzungura.

Kwanga kuzungura bigomba kugaragazwa kandi bigakorwa mu nyandiko. Iyo uzungura atazi cyangwa adashobora kwandika, ashobora kuvuga mu magambo ko yanze kuzungura mu gihe cyagenwe. Kwanga kuzungura bimenyeshwa abandi bazungura cyangwa bikamenyeshwa ushinzwe kwegeranya umutungo iyo hari uwagenwe imbere y’abatangabuhamya babiri.

Uzungura wanze kuzungura afatwa nk’aho atigeze ashyirwa mu bagomba kuzungura. Ntasabwa kwishyura imyenda ikurwa ku mutungo uzungurwa.

Iyo yemeye kuzungura, umuzungura wese agomba kuriha imyenda y’uwapfuye mu kigereranyo cy’uruhare agomba kubona ku mutungo uzungurwa.

Uwishyuye umwenda wose ashobora gusaba urukiko ko hahamagazwa abazungura kugira ngo bishyure uruhare rwabo kuri uwo mwenda.

Nyuma y’itangira ry’izungura, ugomba kwegeranya umutungo uzungurwa atoranywa mu buryo bwateganyijwe n’itegeko nº27/2016 ryo ku wa 08/07/2016 rigenga imicungire y’umutungo w’abashyingiranywe, impano n’izungura.

Iri tegeko rivuga ko, Izungura nta buzima gatozi rifite. Ushinzwe kwegeranya umutungo uzungurwa ni we ubazwa ibirebana n’izungura byose.

Ni bande bemerewe kuzungura n’abatabyemerewe mu mategeko?

Mu ngingo ya 53 y’iri tegeko nº27/2016 ryo ku wa 08/07/2016 rigenga imicungire y’umutungo w’abashyingiranywe, impano n’izungura, hateganya ko abahamagariwe kuzungura ari aba bakurikira.

Ushobora kuzungura ni umuntu ukiriho cyangwa uhagarariwe igihe izungura ryatangiraga, kimwe n’umwana ukiri mu nda, apfa gusa kuvuka ari muzima.

Uwazimiye na we ashobora kuzungura iyo agifatwa nk’ukiriho. Leta n’ibigo bya Leta cyangwa ibitari ibya Leta bifite ubuzima gatozi bishobora kuzungura hakurikijwe irage, iyo ibizungurwa bigizwe n’umutungo ushobora gutungwa na byo.

Amategeko ateganya kandi ko abana bafite uburenganzira bungana mu gikorwa cy’izungura, bisobanuye ko abahungu n’abakobwa bafite uburenganzira bungana muri iki gikorwa.

Dore impamvu ziteganwa n’amategeko zituma habaho kwamburwa nta mpaka uburenganzira bwo kuzungura

Mu ngingo ya 56 y’itegeko rigenga imicungire y’umutungo w’abashyingiranywe, impano n’izungura, hataganya ko hari impamvu zishobora gutuma umuntu yamburwa uburenganzira mu gikorwa cy’izungura.

Yamburwa nta mpaka uburenganzira bwo kuzungura, umuzungura wese:

1. Wakatiwe n’inkiko kubera ko yishe abishaka cyangwa yagambiriye kwica uzungurwa;

2. Wakatiwe n’inkiko kubera ko yabeshyeye cyangwa yatanzeho uzungurwa ubuhamya bw’ibinyoma bwashoboraga gutuma akatirwa n’inkiko igifungo nibura cy’amezi atandatu (6);

3. Wataye nkana umwana we uzungurwa, wamugiriye igikorwa cy’urukozasoni, wamwangije imyanya ndangagitsina, wamusambanyije cyangwa wamushoye mu busambanyi.

Icyemezo cy’urukiko ni cyo gikurikizwa kugira ngo umuzungura wemewe n’itegeko wakoze kimwe mu byaha byavuzwe mu gika kibanziriza iki, avanwe mu bazungura.

Gusa impamvu zivugwa mu ngingo ya 56 y’iri tegeko si zo zonyine zishobora kwambura umuntu uburenganzira bwo kuzungura, kuko hari n’izindi ziteganywa mu ngingo ya 57.

Ashobora kwamburwa uburenganzira bwo kuzungura, umuzungura wese wemewe n’itegeko cyangwa uwahawe indagano wese:

1. Wacanye umubano wa kibyeyi n’uwapfuye igihe yari akiriho;

2. Wirengagije abigambiriye kandi yari ashoboye kwita k’uzungurwa mu gihe yari abikeneye;

3. Witwaje ubushobozi buke bw’uzungurwa, ari ubwo mu mutwe cyangwa ku mubiri, akiharira igice cyangwa ibizungurwa byose;

4. Warigishije nkana, wacagaguye cyangwa wangije irage rya nyuma ry’uwapfuye atabimwemereye, cyangwa wihaye uburenganzira agendeye ku irage ryavanyweho cyangwa ryataye agaciro.

Ufite uburenganzira bwo kuzungura wese ashobora, mu gihe kitarenze umwaka umwe (1) uhereye ku munsi izungura ryatangiriyeho cyangwa ku munsi yamenyeyeho imwe muri izi mpamvu, gusaba urukiko rubifitiye ububasha kwambura uburenganzira bwo kuzungura ugomba kuzungura cyangwa ugomba guhabwa indagano, wateje imwe mu mpamvu zavuzwe mu gika cya mbere cy’iyi ngingo. Uburyo iki kirego gitangwamo gitangwa mu buryo bw’ibirego byihutirwa.

Haseguriwe ibivugwa mu ngingo ya 56 n’iya 57 z’iri tegeko, iyo mbere yo gupfa, uzungurwa wari uzi impamvu yashoboraga gutera kwamburwa uburenganzira bwo kuzungura, nyamara ntabikore, uzungura ntiyamburwa uburenganzira bwo kuzungura.

Uwambuwe uburenganzira bwo kuzungura avanwa mu mubare w’abazungura b’uwapfuye. Umugabane yagombaga kubona wongerwa ku migabane y’abazungura basigaye.

Uwambuwe uburenganzira bwo kuzungura abuzwa gusa kuzungura umutungo w’uwo yahemukiye, ariko ashobora kuzungura undi mutungo w’umuryango.

Icyakora, uwambuwe uburenganzira bwo kuzungura buvugwa mu ngingo ya 56 y’iri tegeko atakaza uburenganzira bwo kuzungura ku mutungo wose w’umuryango akomokamo, hatitawe ku buryo bw’imicungire y’umutungo.

Uzungura cyangwa uhabwa indagano wakuwe mu mubare w’abazungura kubera kwamburwa uburenganzira bwo kuzungura, ategetswe gusubiza umutungo yazunguye, yarazwe cyangwa agaciro kawo mu gihe akiriho.

Amategeko ateganya iki ku izungura ridafite ba nyiraryo?

Kuri iki gikorwa cy’izungura birashoboka ko hari igihe habaho izungura ridafite nyiraryo. Izungura ryitwa ko ridafite nyiraryo, iyo nta muzungura cyangwa abazungura banze uburenganzira bwabo bwo kuzungura.

Mu gihe izungura ridafite nyiraryo umutungo uzungurwa wegurirwa Leta. Leta igomba kurangiza inshingano z’uwapfuye hakurikijwe agaciro k’ibintu yakiriye.

Aha urukiko rubifitiye ububasha cyangwa Komite y’Abunzi byerekana ko izungura ridafite nyiraryo, bibisabwe n’Umunyamabanga Nshingwabikorwa w’Umurenge w’aho izungura rigomba kubera cyangwa w’aho umutungo uzungurwa uri.

Mu gihe kitarenze ukwezi kumwe (1), urukiko cyangwa Komite y’Abunzi byaregewe bigomba gufata icyemezo kigaragaza by’agateganyo ko izungura ridafite nyiraryo.
Muri icyo gihe umutungo ucungwa hakurikijwe ibiteganywa n’itegeko ryerekeye imicungire y’imitungo yasizwe na bene yo; icyo cyemezo iyo kimaze gufatwa kimanikwa ku biro by’Umurenge w’aho izungura rigomba kubera cyangwa w’aho umutungo uzungurwa uri.

Nyuma y’imyaka itatu (3), ku mutungo wimukanwa n’imyaka itanu (5) ku mutungo utimukanwa uhereye igihe byemejwe ko umutungo ucunzwe by’agateganyo, urukiko cyangwa Komite y’Abunzi bibisabwe n’urwego rushinzwe gucunga imitungo yasizwe na bene yo rubifitiye ububasha ruteganywa mu itegeko ryerekeye imicungire y’imitungo yasizwe na bene yo, bitangaza ku buryo budasubirwaho ko izungura ridafite nyiraryo maze umutungo uzungurwa ugahita wegurirwa Leta.

Gusa iyo ibihe by’ubuzime biteganyijwe n’itegeko rigena ubusaze bitararangira, umuzungura ubonetse ashobora gusaba ko asubizwa ibintu byari byareguriwe Leta.

Umuzungura wigaragaje mbere y’uko ibihe byavuzwe haruguru birangira azungura umutungo w’uwapfuye uko awusanze, hagakurwamo ibyakoreshejwe.

Ubutaha tuzababwira ku gikorwa cyo kuraga (Irage) igihe gikorerwa, ubushobozi bw’uraga n’uragwa muri iki gikorwa n’uko gikorwa n’ibindi bijyanye n’iki gikorwa.

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