Ni ryari gufata amajwi n’amashusho mu rukiko biba icyaha? Menya ibyaha bikorwa mu iburanisha

Amategeko avuga ko nta muntu ushobora guhanwa kubera gukora ikibujijwe cyangwa kwanga gukora igitegetswe bitari icyaha hakurikijwe amategeko y’igihugu cyangwa mpuzamahanga mu gihe byakorwaga. Icyaha gishobora gukorerwa ahantu hatandukanye kugera no mu rukiko aho uwitezwe kuburanishwa cyangwa undi muntu urimo ashobora gukora icyaha.

Mu rwego rwo kubafasha kwihugura mu mategeko, uyu munsi Kigali Today yateguriye abasomyi bayo inkuru igendanye n’ibyaha bikorerwa mu rukiko mu gihe cy’iburanisha kugira ngo barusheho kumenya ibyo kwitwararika iyo bageze mu rukiko.

Mbere yo kujya kuri iyi nkuru reka tubanze dusobanukirwe itandukaniro ry’icyaha cyo kurogoya urukiko (Delit d’Audience) n’ibyaha bindi bisanzwe bishobora gukorwa mu gihe cy’iburanisha ( Delit Commis à l’audience).

Umwalimu w’amategeko muri Kaminuza nkuru y’u Rwanda no muri Kaminuza yigenga ya Kigali (ULK), Dr Kayitana avuga ko ibi byaha byombi bitandukanye.

Mwalimu Kayitana Evode agira ati “Icyaha cyo kurogoya urukiko (Delit d’Audience) bivugwa ko cyabayeho iyo umuntu ashakuje, akavuza ibintu biteza urusaku, akarangaza abacamanza cyangwa akiha ijambo mu gihe cy’iburanisha.”

Akomeza avuga ko icyaha gisanzwe gishobora gukorerwa mu rukiko mu gihe cy’iburanisha (Delit Commis à l’audience) gitandukanye n’icyaha cyo kurogoya urukiko (Delit d’Audience) kuko cyo ni icyaha gisanzwe cyakorewe mu rukiko rurimo ruburanisha nko kuba wakubita umuntu urushyi, wamufata ku ngufu, wakwica umuntu, cyangwa ukamukorera ibindi. Ibi byaba ari ibyaha bisanzwe bikorewe mu rukiko, bikaba bitandukanye no kurogoya urukiko.

Aha mwalimu Kayitana Evode avuga ko iki kitakagombye kwitwa icyaha mu gihe ukora igikorwa cyo gufata amashusho n’amajwi yatse uruhushya, akaba ari kubikora neza adateza akavuyo cyangwa ngo arangaze abari mu rukiko. Gusa iyo umucamanza amusabye kubihagarika akabyanga byitwa icyaha kikajya mu cyiciro cy’ibyaha bisanzwe bikorwa mu gihe cy’iburanisha.

Ibi byaha byari mu cyiciro cya Délit d’Audience mbere y’ivugururwa ry’amategeko ryavuguruye igitabo giteganya ibyaha n’ibihano muri rusange cyari gisanzweho. Ubu byavuyeho ntabwo kikiriho kuko amategeko avuga muri rusange ibyaha bisanzwe bikorerwa mu rukiko mu gihe cy’iburanisha.

Kuba icyaha cyo guteza akavuyo mu rukiko (Delit d’Audience) kidateganywa mu gitabo giteganya ibyaha n’ibihano muri rusange ntabwo kikiri icyaha mu buryo bwihariye ubu itegeko rivuga muri rusange ibyaha bisanzwe byakorewe mu rukiko mu gihe cy’iburanisha (Delit Commis à l’audience ). Aha ni ho dusanga ibyaha byahoze muri kiriya cyiciro bikurikira:

Icyaha cyo guhungabanya umutekano mu rukiko mu gihe cy’iburanisha, kubura ikinyabupfura mu rukiko mu gihe cy’iburanisha, kwambara imyambaro itaboneye mu rukiko mu gihe cy’iburanisha , no gutuka cyangwa gusagarira abari mu nzego z’ubutabera mu gihe cy’iburanisha.

Urugero rutangwa ni uko nta gihano gisobanutse kihariye ubu bavuga cyateganyijwe kuri biriya byaha byahoze muri kiriya cyiciro mu itegeko rigena ibyaha n’ibihano muri rusange (Penal code) rya 2018. Aha bavuga muri rusange ibyaha bisanzwe bikorerwa mu rukiko mu gihe cy’iburanisha (Delit commis à l’Audience)

Gufata amajwi n’amashusho mu rukiko nta ruhushya

Ingingo ya 71 y’itegeko No 22/2018 ryo ku wa 29/04/2018 ryerekeye imiburanishirize y’imanza z’imbonezamubano, iz’ubucuruzi, iz’umurimo n’iz’ubutegetsi n’itegeko Nº 027/2019 ryo ku wa 19/09/2019 Itegeko ryerekeye imiburanishirize y’imanza z’inshinjabyaha zivuga ko uretse ababiherewe uburenganzira bwihariye na Perezida w’urukiko, undi wese ushaka gufata amajwi n’amashusho mu cyumba cy’iburanisha abikora mbere y’uko inteko iburanisha yinjira cyangwa nyuma iburanisha rishojwe, inteko y’urukiko imaze gusohoka mu cyumba cy’iburanisha.

Nta muntu wemerewe kwinjirana telefoni n’ibindi bikoresho bifata amajwi n’amashusho birangaza mu cyumba cy’iburanisha, uretse ababuranyi n’ababunganira babikoresha mu nyungu z’urubanza.

Iyo babikoresheje mu buryo bunyuranye n’amategeko bacibwa ihazabu mbonezamubano y’amafaranga y’ u Rwanda atari munsi y’ibihumbi magana abiri (200.000) ariko atarenze ibihumbi magana atanu (500.000). Iyo hari ufatanywe ibikoresho bibujijwe mu iburanisha nta ruhushya, arabyamburwa bigafatirwa akabisubizwa byamaze kugenzurwa, byaba ngombwa bigafatirwa burundu bigashyirwa mu mutungo wa Leta. Umucamanza afata icyemezo kigaragaza ibyafatiriwe n’aho bigomba kujya.

Mu itegeko ryerekeye imiburanishirize y’imanza nshinjabyaha ryasohotse mu 2019 na ho hateganya ko bitemewe gufata amajwi n’amashusho mu gihe cy’iburanisha uretse iyo ubyifuza abiherewe uburenganzira na Perezida w’Urukiko mbere y’uko iburanisha riba.

Ingingo ya 136 y’iri tegeko ivuga ko uretse ababiherewe uburenganzira bwihariye na Perezida w’Urukiko, undi wese ushaka gufata amajwi n’amashusho mu rukiko abikora mbere y’uko inteko iburanisha yinjira cyangwa nyuma iburanisha rishoje inteko y’urukiko imaze gusohoka mu cyumba cy’iburanisha. Icyakora, abashaka kugira icyo bandika kijyanye n’iburanisha bemerewe kwandika.

Uburenganzira bwo gufata amajwi n’amashusho mu iburanisha busabwa mu nyandiko nibura mu gihe cy’amasaha mirongo ine n’umunani (48) mbere y’iburanisha. Perezida w’urukiko afata icyemezo cyemera cyangwa cyimana uburenganzira bwo gufata amajwi n’amashusho mbere y’uko iburanisha ritangira amaze gusuzuma ko nta ngaruka byagira ku nyungu z’ubutabera, umutekano w’Igihugu n’uw’ababuranyi n’umuco mbonezabupfura. Icyo cyemezo kimenyeshwa uwasabye uburenganzira bwo gufata amajwi cyangwa amashusho mu iburanisha mbere y’uko iburanisha ritangira.

Haba mu itegeko rijyanye n’imiburanishirize y’imanza nshinjabyaha, imiburanishirize y’imanza z’imbonezamubano, iz’ubucuruzi, iz’umurimo n’iz’ubutegetsi no mu mabwiriza ya perezida w’urukiko rw’ikirenga bavuga ko Icyakora, abashaka kugira icyo bandika kijyanye n’iburanisha bemerewe kwandika ariko ntibakore ibikorwa birimo gufata amajwi n’amashusho mu gihe batabanje kubihererwa uburenganzira.

Guhungabanya umutekano mu rukiko mu gihe cy’iburanisha

Ingingo ya 80 y’itegeko ryerekeye imiburanishirize y’imanza z’imbonezamubano, iz’ubucuruzi, iz’umurimo n’iz’ubutegetsi n’ Itegeko ryerekeye imiburanishirize y’imanza z’inshinjabyaha mu ngingo ya 135 amategeko avuga ko :

Iyo mu rukiko cyangwa ahandi hose abacamanza baburanishiriza, umwe cyangwa benshi mu bantu bahari bateye urusaku, bagaragaje ko bagize icyo bashima cyangwa bagaya, bagatera cyangwa bakogeza imvururu mu buryo ubwo aribwo bwose, uyobora iburanisha arabacyaha, bakomeza akabirukana byaba ngombwa akitabaza inzego z’umutekano, bitabujije ibindi bihano biteganywa n’amategeko.

Iyo imvururu zitewe n’umuburanyi, uyoboye iburanisha aramucyaha, akamumenyesha ko nakomeza amwirukana urubanza rugakomeza kuburanishwa nk’aho ahari. Iyo bamusohoye akanga, uyoboye iburanisha yitabaza ushinzwe umutekano akamusohora ku ngufu, bitabujije ibindi bihano biteganywa n’amategeko.

Iyo imvururu zitewe n’umuntu ufite umurimo mu rukiko urugero nk’uwunganira uregwa mu mategeko cyangwa undi , hakurikizwa ibiteganyijwe mu gika cya mbere cy’izi ngingo.

Kutubahiriza imyitwarire yo kurangwa n’ikinyabupfura mu rukiko mu gihe cy’iburanisha

Itegeko rigendanye n’imiburanishirize y’imanza nshinjabyaha mu ngingo ya 133 , n’itegeko iryerekeye imiburanishirize y’imanza z’imbonezamubano, iz’ubucuruzi, iz’umurimo n’iz’ubutegetsi mu ngingo ya 78 amategeko ateganya ko mu migirire yabo no mu magambo yabo, abafite ijambo mu rubanza bose bagomba kugirira ikinyabupfura abacamanza, abanditsi, abo baburana n’abantu bari aho.
Bavuga ibyerekeye urubanza ntacyo bishisha ariko bavugana icyubahiro gikwiye ubutabera kandi bagasobanura neza ingingo zabo kugira ngo abacamanza babashe kuzumva.

Utandukiriye akavuga ibidahuye n’ikiburanwa cyangwa ugira ikinyabupfura gike, uyoboye iburanisha aramucyaha. Yakomeza cyangwa yavuga amagambo atarimo ikinyabupfura, akamucecekesha akanya, akabigira mu buryo bwiza yirinda guhutaza umuburanyi.

Ibyo umucamanza ategetse byose byerekeye umutekano kugira ngo iburanisha rigende neza bihera ko bikurikizwa nk’uko abitegetse.

Kwambara imyambaro itaboneye mu rukiko mu gihe cy’iburanisha

Urukiko rufatwa nk’ahantu hihariye hagombwa icyubahiro , niyo mpamvu uzabona uashaka ijambo wese aba agomba kubanza kurisaba umucamanza akabikora mu cyubahiro amwita nyakubahwa cyangwa akamwita honorable mu gihe avuga igifaransa cg my Lord ku bakoresha icyongereza.

Burya ntabwo ari imyambaro yose wajyana mu rukiko, amategeko ateganya ko Bibujijwe kwambara imyambaro ibangamiye icyubahiro kigomba Urukiko ahabera imirimo y’iburanisha.

Gutuka cyangwa gusagarira abari mu nzego z’ubutabera

Ingingo ya 260 mu gitabo cy’amategeko giteganya ibyaha n’ibihano muri rusange (Penal code ) cya 2018 kivuga ko Umuntu wese utuka cyangwa usagararira umugenzacyaha, umushinjacyaha, umucamanza, uwunganira abandi mu nkiko, intumwa ya Leta, umwanditsi w’inkiko, umuhesha w’inkiko, umwunzi cyangwa umukemurampaka mu kazi ke cyangwa se ku bw’akazi ke bigamije kumwandagaza cyangwa kumutesha icyubahiro ahabwa n’akazi ke, hakoreshejwe amagambo, amarenga, ibimenyetso, ibikangisho, inyandiko, ishusho iyo ari yo yose, aba akoze icyaha. Iyo abihamijwe n’urukiko, ahanishwa igifungo kitari munsi y’umwaka umwe (1) ariko kitarenze imyaka ibiri (2) n’ihazabu y’amafaranga y’u Rwanda atari munsi ya miliyoni imwe (1.000.000 FRW) ariko atarenze miliyoni ebyiri (2.000.000 FRW).
Iyo gutukana cyangwa gusagarira bikozwe mu gihe cy’iburanisha, ibihano biba igifungo kitari munsi y’imyaka ibiri (2) ariko itarenze imyaka itatu (3).

Imiburanishirize y’imanza ku byaha bikorewe mu iburanisha

Ingingo ya 81 y’itegeko No 22/2018 ryo ku wa 29/04/2018 ryerekeye imiburanishirize y’imanza z’imbonezamubano, iz’ubucuruzi, iz’umurimo n’iz’ubutegetsi ivuga ko mu gihe cy’iburanisha iyo hakozwe icyaha gihanishwa igihano kitarenga igifungo cy’imyaka itanu (5), urukiko, rushobora guhera ko ruhana uwagikoze kabone n’ubwo rwaba rudasanganywe ububasha bwo kuburanisha mu rwego rwa mbere bene ibyo byaha.

Muri icyo gihe, umucamanza ahagarika iburanisha, agategeka ushinzwe umutekano gusohora uwakoze icyaha, agasaba abari mu iburanisha kugira ituze. Umwanditsi akora inyandiko mvugo y’ibyabaye.

Umucamanza ahita yandika urubanza ashingiye ku byabaye n’amategeko yishwe, hanyuma agahamagaza uwo bari basohoye, akamusomera urubanza amuciriye mu ngingo zarwo zose, agasubukura iburanisha.

Nta yindi mihango ikorwa cyangwa ngo ababuranyi bahabwe ijambo kugira ngo bagire icyo bavuga ku cyaha cyakozwe

Iyo icyaha cyakorewe mu iburanisha gihanishwa igifungo kirenze imyaka itanu (5), Umucamanza ategeka ko abashinzwe umutekano bafata uwagikoze, akandika inyandikomvugo isobanura neza ibyabaye, uwakoze icyaha akohererezwa Umushinjacyaha ubifitiye ububasha hamwe na dosiye ye kugira ngo itegurwe, izaregerwe urukiko. Ibyemezo bifashwe bihita bishyirwa mu bikorwa nta kuzuyaza.

Aha ariko nanone amategeko ateganya ko uba aciriwe urubanza aba afite uburyo bwo kujuririra icyemezo cy’urukiko nkuko biteganwa n’ Ingingo ya 82 y’iri tegeko.

Iyo uwahungabanyije umutekano ahawe igihano cy’igifungo kivugwa mu ngingo ya 81 y’iri tegeko, ashobora kujuririra urukiko rwisumbuyeho mu gihe kitarenze iminsi itanu (5).

Iyo inyandiko y’ubujurire igeze mu rukiko, Urukiko rwajuririwe rutumiza kopi y’inyandikomvugo y’iburanisha ry’urubanza rwakorewemo intugunda na kopi y’urubanza rwafunze uwo wajuriye.

Dosiye yose yohererezwa Ubushinjacyaha kugira ngo bwitegure kuzaza kuyiburana.
Ubushinjacyaha, buhereye kuri dosiye bwashyikirijwe, bushobora gukora iperereza ryuzuza ibiyikubiyemo. Muri urwo rubanza rw’ubujurire, hatumizwamo uwajuriye, ubushinjacyaha n’abatangabuhamya iyo bakenewe.

Urwo rubanza rucibwa mu gihe kitarenze iminsi cumi n’itanu (15) uhereye igihe iburanisha ryarwo ryarangiriye kandi ntirushobora kongera kujuririrwa.

Ibyaha bisanzwe bikorerwa mu Rukiko mu gihe cy’iburanisha (Delit Commis à l’audience ) biri mu ngeri zitandukanye hagendewe ku buremere bwa buri cyaha mu mategeko. Urugero umuntu uciye inyandiko z’umucamanza mu iburanisha cg uwitabye telefoni ntabwo bahanwa kimwe nk’umuntu wishe umwe mu bari mu Rukiko .

Ibi byaha bigabanwa mu byiciro bitatu aribyo : icyaha cy’ubugome (Felony), icyaha gikomeye (misdemeanour) n’icyaha cyoroheje (petty offence cyangwa contravention)

Icyaha cy’ ubugome ni icyaha itegeko rihanisha igihano cy’iremezo cy’igifungo kirenze imyaka itanu (5) cyangwa igifungo cya burundu, Icyaha gikomeye ni icyaha itegeko rihanisha igihano cy’iremezo cy’igifungo kitari munsi y’amezi atandatu (6) ariko kitarenze imyaka itanu (5) naho Icyaha cyoroheje ni icyaha itegeko rihanisha gusa igihano cy’iremezo cy’igifungo kitageze ku mezi atandatu (6), icy’ihazabu cyangwa igihano cy’imirimo y’inyungu rusange.

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