Menya impinduka zikubiye mu itegeko rishya rigenga ubwenegihugu mu Rwanda rizasimbura irya 2008

Inteko Ishinga Amategeko, Umutwe w’Abadepite, iherutse gutora umushinga w’itegeko Ngenga rigenga ubwenegihugu Nyarwanda rizasimbura iryari risanzwe rikoreshwa kuva muri 2008. Iri tegeko ryitezweho impinduka nyinshi harimo korohereza abafite ubumenyi cyangwa impano byihariye ndetse n’abafite ishoramari n’ibikorwa binini birambye mu Rwanda.

Umuyobozi Mukuru wa Kaminuza y
Umuyobozi Mukuru wa Kaminuza y’u Rwanda, Prof. Philip Cotton, ari mu bahawe ubwenegihugu mu bihe byashize

Mu Rwanda hari ubwoko bubiri bw’ubwenegihugu ari bwo ubwenegihugu butangwa nyarwanda n’ubwenegihugu nyarwanda bw’inkomoko.

Urwego rw’Abinjira n’Abasohoka mu Rwanda ruherutse gutangaza ko kuva mu 2009, ubwo rwatangiraga inshingano zo gusuzuma no kwemera cyangwa kwanga ubusabe bw’abanyamahanga basaba ubwenegihugu bw’u Rwanda, rumaze kubutanga ku bagera kuri 935, kandi hari n’ubundi busabe bugisuzumwa, uko abantu bagenda bifuza ubwenegihugu nyarwanda niko benshi ibishingirwaho bitangwa byarushagaho kubabera imbogamizi bukabona abantu bake kandi bigatwara igihe kire kire.

Inteko Ishinga Amategeko iherutse gutora umushinga w’itegeko Ngenga rigenga ubwenegihugu Nyarwanda kugira ngo irusheho koroshya uburyo ubwenegihugu buzajya butangwamo.

Iri tegeko rigizwe n’ingingo 58 rizasimbura Itegeko Ngenga n°30/2008 ryo ku wa 25/07/2008 ryerekeye ubwenegihugu, byagaragaye ko ryari rikeneye kuvugururwa kugira ngo rijyanishwe na politiki y’igihugu u Rwanda rushyize imbere.

Bimwe mu bikubiye mu itegeko rishya rigenga ubwenegihugu nyarwanda

Muri iri tegeko rishya rigenga imitangire y’ubwenegihugu nyarwanda, hongerewe impamvu zishingirwaho mu kubusaba no kubutanga, harimo ku banyamahanga “bafitiye igihugu akamaro”, aho bazajya babuhabwa hatitawe ku myaka itanu bagombaga kuba bamaze mu gihugu nk’uko byari bisanzwe mu itegeko n°30/2008 ryo ku wa 25/07/2008.

Muri izo mpamvu kandi harimo guha ubwenegihugu nyarwanda umunyamahanga ufite ubumenyi cyangwa impano byihariye, ishoramari cyangwa ibikorwa birambye.
Muri rusange iri tegeko rishya riteganya impamvu 11 zishingirwaho mu gutanga ubwenegihugu nyarwanda butangwa, ni ukuvuga ubutari ubw’inkomoko.

Zirimo kuvukira ku butaka bw’u Rwanda, umwana utoraguwe, ishyingirwa, kubera umubyeyi umwana atabyaye, inyungu z’igihugu, ubumenyi cyangwa impano byihariye, ishoramari cyangwa ibikorwa binini kandi birambye, kuba mu Rwanda, icyubahiro, kuba umwimukira no kutagira ubwenegihugu.

Iri tegeko rishya riteganya ko mu gusaba ubwenegihugu nyarwanda hashingiwe ku ishyingiranwa, ugomba kuba ‘warashyingiranywe n’Umunyarwanda mu buryo bwemewe n’amategeko.’

Muri izo ngingo hiyongeraho “Kuba umaze nibura imyaka itanu (5) ushyingiwe ku munsi w’ubusabe,” kandi icyo gihe ugomba kuba ubana “n’uwo mwashyingiranywe kugeza ku munsi w’itangwa ry’ubwenegihugu nyarwanda wasabye.”

Kuri iyi ngingo hakozwe impinduka hakumirwa gushakana ngo abantu bahite babona ubwenegihugu nyarwanda butangwa, mu buryo bworoshye hanyuma nyuma bahite batandukana.

Mu itegeko ngenga ryo mu 2008 ho byateganywaga ko umunyamahanga cyangwa umuntu udafite ubwenegihugu washyingiranywe n’Umunyarwanda, ashobora kubona ubwenegihugu igihe abisabye, ubushyingiranwe bumaze nibura imyaka itatu ( 3).

Mu zindi ngingo zituma abashyingiranywe bahabwa ubwenegihugu nyarwanda ni uko ubisaba agomba kuba ari inyangamugayo, anafite ubumenyi ku muco n’imigenzo nyarwanda n’indangagaciro z’igihugu, kandi abyubaha, no kuba atahungabanya umutekano w’igihugu.

Muri iri tegeko binateganywa ko hashobora kubaho gutakaza ubwenegihugu nyarwanda ku wabuhawe hashingiwe ku ishyingirwa, “iyo urwego rubifitiye ububasha rumenye ko ishyingiranwa ryabaye ku bw’inabi hagambiriwe kubona cyangwa gufasha umuntu kubona ubwenegihugu nyarwanda.”

Icyo gihe umuntu wambuwe ubwenegihugu kandi ntiyongera kubusubirana, ndetse ingaruka zo kubwamburwa zigera no ku bo yishingiye. Iri tegeko kandi rinateganya impamvu uwahawe ubwenegihugu nyarwanda butangwa ashobora kubutakaza.

Ubwenegihugu nyarwanda butangwa bushobora kwamburwa kubera imwe mu mpamvu zikurikira :

1ºiyo uwabuhawe yabubonye akoresheje amakuru atari yo, inyandiko ihinduye cyangwa irimo ikinyoma, cyangwa akoresheje ubundi buriganya ubwo ari bwo bwose;
2º iyo uwabuhawe yasabye ubwenegihugu nyarwanda butangwa agambiriye kugambanira Repubulika y’u Rwanda;

3º iyo imyitwarire y’uwabuhawe ihungabanya umutekano w’Igihugu cyangwa ibangamiye izindi nyungu z’Igihugu;

4º iyo yabuhawe hashingiwe ku ishyingirwa, nyuma urwego rufite ubwenegihugu nyarwanda mu nshingano rukamenya ko ishyingiranwa ryabaye hagambiriwe kubona cyangwa gufasha umuntu kubona ubwenegihugu nyarwanda;

Icyakora, kwamburwa ubwenegihugu nyarwanda butangwa ntibyemewe iyo bishobora gutuma ubwamburwa aba umuntu udafite ubwenegihugu.

Ubundi bwenegihugu butangwa hashingiwe ku nyungu z’igihugu

Ibishingirwaho mu gusaba ubwenegihugu butangwa hashingiwe ku nyungu z’igihugu harimo kuba ubusaba igihugu kimufitemo inyungu, kandi hari ibaruwa urwego bireba rugenera urwego rubifitiye ububasha isobanura inyungu z’igihugu, zishingirwaho mu kumuha ubwenegihugu nyarwanda butangwa, ni ukuvuga ubutari ubw’inkomoko.

Ni kimwe no ku bwenegihugu butangwa hashingiwe ku bumenyi cyangwa ku mpano byihariye, aho ababuhabwa bagomba kuba bafite ubumenyi cyangwa impano byihariye bikenewe mu Rwanda. Urugero aha ni abanyabwenge cyangwa abakinnyi b’imikino itandukanye.

Hagomba kandi “kuba hari ibaruwa, urwego bireba rugenera urwego rubifitiye ububasha, isobanura uburyo ubumenyi cyangwa impano byihariye usaba afite bikenewe mu Rwanda, bikaba byashingirwaho ahabwa ubwenegihugu nyarwanda butangwa.”

Naho ku bwenegihugu buzaba butangwa hashingiwe ku ishoramari cyangwa ibikorwa birambye umuntu afite, harimo kuba ubusaba “afite ishoramari cyangwa ibikorwa binini kandi birambye mu Rwanda ni ukuvuga ibikorwa bitazamara igihe mbere yo guhagarara.”

Icyo gihe na we agomba kuzaba afite ibaruwa urwego bireba rugenera urwego rubifitiye ububasha, igaragaza ishoramari cyangwa ibikorwa binini kandi birambye by’usaba mu Rwanda, bishobora gushingirwaho ahabwa ubwenegihugu nyarwanda butangwa.

Uhabwa bene ubwo bwenegihugu azajya asabwa kuba ari inyangamugayo, afite imyifatire myiza kandi akaba atahungabanya umutekano w’igihugu.

Bivuze ko uwujuje kimwe muri ibyo byavuzwe haruguru azajya ashobora kubona ubwenegihugu nyarwanda mu gihe abusabye, hadashingiwe ku kindi icyo ari cyo cyose, nk’igihe amaze mu Rwanda cyangwa ibindi.

Ubwenegihugu butangwa kubera kuba mu Rwanda igihe cyo kububona gishobora kongerwa

Ku bijyanye n’ubwenegihugu butangwa kubera kuba mu Rwanda, muri iri tegeko rishya mu ngingo ya 16 biteganywa ko umunyamahanga azaba ashobora kubusaba igihe amaze imyaka cumi n’itanu (15) ikurikirana aba mu Rwanda, mu buryo bwemewe n’amategeko, kandi akaba azi umuco, indangagaciro nyarwanda kandi abyubaha.

Ni impinduka zikomeye kuko mu itegeko ryo mu 2008 ari na ryo rigikoreshwa ubu, ryateganyaga ko umunyamahanga wese usaba kugirwa Umunyarwanda mu gusaba ubwenegihugu nyarwanda butangwa hashingiwe ku kuba mu Rwanda, igihe abisaba yagombaga kuba amaze imyaka itanu (5) aba mu Rwanda kandi ahaba mu buryo bwemewe n’amategeko .

Hari kandi n’ubwenegihugu butangwa hashingiwe ku kuba umwimukira, aho ubusaba agomba kuba yarimukiye mu Rwanda ku mpamvu z’imibereho, iza politiki cyangwa iz’ubukungu, cyangwa kuba akomoka ku muntu wimukiye mu Rwanda ku bw’izo mpamvu.

Aha umwimukira wifuza ubwenegihugu nyarwanda agomba kuba nibura amaze imyaka 25 ikurikirana aba mu Rwanda, kandi akaba ntaho agihuriye n’igihugu cye akomokamo, akaba kandi ari inyangamugayo kandi afite imyifatire myiza, afite ubumenyi ku muco n’imigenzo nyarwanda anabyubaha, akaba afite ubumenyi ku ndangagaciro mboneragihugu no kuba abana neza n’abandi, kandi afite ubushobozi buhagije, akaba kandi atahungabanya umutekano w’igihugu.

Umuntu ashobora kandi gusaba cyangwa gusabirwa ubwenegihugu nyarwanda butangwa hashingiwe ku kutagira ubwenegihugu, aho ubusaba cyangwa ubusabirwa agomba kuba adafite ubwenegihugu bw’ikindi gihugu kandi akaba ari ku butaka bw’u Rwanda ku munsi w’ubusabe, akaba kandi atahungabanya umutekano w’igihugu.

Muri iri tegeko rishya kandi harimo ko hashobora no gutangwa ubwenegihugu hashingiwe ku cyubahiro, buzaba butangwa mu rwego rwo guha agaciro imyitwarire y’umwihariko y’umuntu cyangwa guha agaciro ibikorwa by’indashyikirwa by’umwihariko by’umuntu, ububasha bwo gutanga ubu bwenegihugu bukaba bufitwe gusa na Perezida wa Repubulika.

Aha itegeko rishya mu ngingo yaryo ya 37 riteganya ibijyanye no kongera gusubirana ubwenegihugu.

Ubwenegihugu nyarwanda bw’inkomoko bushobora gusubiranwa nyuma yo kubureka. Uretse ubwenegihugu nyarwanda butangwa hashingiwe ku cyubahiro, ubwenegihugu nyarwanda butangwa ntibusubiranwa.

Itegeko rishya rigena ufite ububasha bwo gutanga ubwenegihugu

Ububasha bwo gutanga ubwenegihugu nyarwanda bw’inkomoko bufitwe n’urwego rufite ubwenegihugu nyarwanda mu nshingano mu gihe icyemezo cyabwo gitangwa n’urwego rufite ubwenegihugu nyarwanda mu nshingano.

Iteka rya Minisitiri rigena imiterere y’icyemezo cy’ubwenegihugu nyarwanda bw’inkomoko ibikigize, uburyo gikoze n’ibipimo byacyo, umukuru w’urwego rufite ubwenegihugu nyarwanda mu nshingano amenyesha mu nyandiko umwanditsi w’irangamimerere w’aho uwabuhawe aba amakuru yerekeranye n’itangwa ry’ubwenegihugu nyarwanda bw’inkomoko.

Setti Solomon na we ni umukozi wa Ambasade y
Setti Solomon na we ni umukozi wa Ambasade y’u Rwanda muri Leta Zunze Ubumwe za Amerika wahawe ubwenegihugu mu mpera z’ukwezi gushize

Uwahawe ubwenegihugu nyarwanda bw’inkomoko yandikwa n’umwanditsi w’irangamimerere mu bitabo by’irangamirere abanje kumugaragariza icyemezo cy’ubwenegihugu yahawe n’urwego rufite ubwenegihugu nyarwanda mu nshingano.

Ni mu gihe ububasha bwo gutanga ubwenegihugu nyarwanda butangwa bufitwe n’Inama y’Abaminisitiri, icyakora, ububasha bwo gutanga ubwenegihugu nyarwanda bushingira ku cyubahiro bufitwe na Perezida wa Repubulika.

Uwahawe ubwenegihugu nyarwanda butangwa atangazwa mu Igazeti ya Leta ya Repubulika y’u Rwanda. Icyakora, ibijyanye no gutangaza uwahawe ubwenegihugu nyarwanda butangwa hashingiwe ku cyubahiro bigenwa na Perezida wa Repubulika.
Iteka rya Minisitiri rigena ibikubiye mu myirondoro y’uwahawe ubwenegihugu nyarwanda butangwa bitangazwa mu Igazeti ya Leta ya Repubulika y’u Rwanda. Icyakora, ibikubiye mu myirondoro y’uwahawe ubwenegihugu nyarwanda butangwa hashingiwe ku cyubahiro bitangazwa bigenwa na Perezida wa Repubulika.

Itegeko rishya rinateganya n’ibihano ku wahawe ubwenegihugu akoresheje uburiganya

Itegeko Ngenga rishya riteganya ko umuntu wahawe ubwenegihugu nyarwanda azajya abwamburwa, igihe bigaragaye ko yabubonye akoresheje uburiganya, amakuru atari yo, inyandiko ihinduye cyangwa irimo ikinyoma, cyangwa akoresheje ubundi buriganya ubwo ari bwo bwose.

Ni kimwe n’igihe uwahawe ubwenegihugu bimenyekanye ko yari agambiriye kugambanira Repubulika y’u Rwanda cyangwa igihe imyitwarire y’uwabuhawe ihungabanya umutekano w’igihugu.

Biteganywa ko umukozi w’urwego rubifitiye ububasha uzagira uruhare mu itangwa ry’icyemezo cy’ubwenegihugu nyarwanda butangwa mu buriganya, nabihamywa n’urukiko azahanishwa igifungo kitari munsi y’imyaka irindwi, ariko kitarenze 10.
Naho uzihesha ubwenegihugu nyarwanda butangwa mu buryo bw’uburiganya, nabihamywa n’urukiko azahanishwa igifungo kitari munsi y’imyaka itanu ariko kitarenze imyaka irindwi n’ihazabu itari munsi ya miliyoni 3 Frw ariko atarenze miliyoni 5 Frw.

Ni kimwe n’umuntu uzahamwa no gufasha undi muntu mu buryo ubwo ari bwo bwose kubona ku bw’uburiganya ubwenegihugu Nyarwanda, azahanishwa igifungo kitari munsi y’imyaka itanu ariko kitarengeje imyaka irindwi, n’ihazabu itari munsi ya miliyoni 3 Frw ariko itarenze miliyoni 5 Frw.

Kimwe n’itegeko risanzwe, uyu mushinga w’itegeko wemera ko Umunyarwanda ashobora kugira ubwenegihugu burenze bumwe, harimo n’ubw’u Rwanda, ariko ubwenegihugu nyarwanda ni bwo bwonyine bwitabwaho iyo hari amategeko y’u Rwanda agomba kubahirizwa.

Abafite ubundi bwenegihugu bazaba basabwa kubumenyekanisha bitarenze amezi atatu uhereye igihe babuherewe.

Ibi tubagejejeho muri iyi nkuru bimwe bishobora guhinduka bitewe n’ubugorangingo iri tegeko rizagenda rikorerwa mbere y’uko risohoka.

Iri tegeko ryatowe n’Umutwe w’Abadepite rigomba kohererezwa abagize inteko ya Sena y’u Rwanda na bo bakaryigaho, bamara kuryemeza rikohererezwa Perezida wa Repubulika kugira ngo aryemeze, cyangwa agire ubundi bugororangingo akoraho. Mu gihe azaba arishyizeho umukono nibwo rizasohoka mu igazeti ya Leta ubundi ritangire gukurikizwa risimbuye iryo mu 2008 ryari risanzwe rikoreshwa.

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