Inshingano za RIB, iza Polisi n’iz’Ubushinjacyaha zitandukanira he?

RIB nk’Urwego rw’Ubugenzacyaha, Polisi nk’Urwego rukumira icyaha cyangwa rukakiburizamo kitaraba rukarinda n’umutekano w’abantu n’ibintu,
n’Ubushinjacyaha ni inzego zuzuzanya mu kazi ka buri munsi ariko zifite n’ibyo zitadukaniyeho. Aha usanga bamwe bitiranya izi nzego kugeza n’aho batabasha kuzitandukanya kandi ari inzego zitandukanye.

Ese RIB ifite ubushobozi bwo gufunga umuntu ukurikiranyweho icyaha? Ese ubushobozi bwayo bugarukira hehe? Ubushinjacyaha se bwo bukora gute? Ibi byose ni byo Kigali Today yifuje gusobanurira abasomyi bayo.

Ubundi mu mategeko ukurikiranyweho icyaha aca mu nzira 3 mbere yo gukatirwa n’urukiko. Izo nzira ni igihe cyo gukusanya ibimenyetso (Pretrial phase), igihe cy’iburanisha (Trial phase) n’igihe cy’ikatirwa mu gihe iburanisha rirangiye (Sentencing).

Mu gihe cy’ikusanywa ry’ibimenyetso, abahura n’ushinjwa ni Ubugenzacyaha n’Ubushinjacyaha. Mu Rwanda imirimo y’Ubugenzacyaha ikorwa na RIB gusa n’izindi nzego zibihererwa ububasha n’itegeko zishobora gukora izi nshingano (urugero: Urwego rw’Igihugu rushinzwe Abinjira n’Abasohoka). Muri iki cyiciro Ubugenzacyaha bukorana bya hafi n’Ubushinjacyaha kugeza igihe uregwa agejejwe mu rukiko aje kuburana ku cyaha aba akurikiranyweho.

Ubushinjacyaha bufite inshingano zo gusaba Ubugenzacyaha gukomeza gushaka ibimenyetso mu gihe hari ibigishakishwa biba bitaraboneka bwamara kubona byuzuye bugategura inyandiko ikubiyemo ikirego iba igomba gushyikirizwa urukiko (Indictment).

Mbere y’uko umuntu agezwa imbere y’urukiko nabwo aba ashobora gufungwa by’agateganyo. Amategeko yemerera Ubugenzacyaha n’Ubushinjacyaha gufunga muri kasho by’agateganyo ukekwaho icyaha kugira ngo adacika cyangwa ngo abe yabangamira iperereza rikiri gukorwa.

Mu Bugenzacyaha, itegeko riteganya ko umuntu ashobora gufungwa iminsi itanu. Icyakora iyo Ubushinjacyaha bubonye ko iperereza ritararangira na bwo bwemerewe kumarana umuntu iminsi itanu muri kasho , ishobora kwiyongeraho indi minsi itanu mu gihe iperereza ritarasozwa.

Mu bihugu bigendera ku mategeko ya Common Law nka Canada, u Bwongereza, Australia na Leta zunze Ubumwe za Amerika ukekwaho icyaha ho ntarenza amasaha 24 ataragezwa imbere y’ubutabera.

Iyi minsi itanu yindi ihabwa ukurikiranyweho icyaha nyuma y’urwandiko bita Map itangwa n’Ubushinjachaha isabira ukurikiranyweho icyaha kuguma muri kasho hanyuma ibimenyetso bwamara kubibona bugategura dosiye ikubiyemo ikirego (Indictment cyangwa Acte d’accusation) akaba aribwo bugena niba ikibazo gishobora kujyanwa mu rukiko cyangwa ntikijyanweyo.

RIB nk’Urwego rw’Igihugu rw’Ubugenzacyaha ikora ite?

Itegeko rishyiraho Urwego rw’Igihugu rw’Ubugenzacyaha (RIB) ryashyizweho mu 2017 riteganya ko RIB ifite inshingano zikurikira:

Gukumira no kubuza ikorwa ry’ibyaha binyujijwe mu gushakisha no gukora iperereza ku bikorwa byose bifatika cyangwa mu ikoranabuhanga; gukora iperereza rigamije gushakisha, guhagarika no kuburizamo ibyaha biri gukorwa cyangwa ibyaha bishya n’udutsiko dukora ibikorwa bihungabanya cyangwa bishobora guhungabanya igihugu, abantu n’imitungo.

Gushakisha no gufata abenegihugu n’abanyamahanga bakekwaho ibyaha n’abahunze kubera gukora ibyaha hakurikijwe amategeko abigenga n’ibindi.

RIB nk’urwego rw’ubugenzacyaha rufite ububasha bwo gukora ibintu bikurikira:

1º Gufata abakekwaho ibyaha no kubafunga.

2º Gufunga agace k’ahantu no kutemerera abantu kukageramo cyangwa gushyira mu muhanda bariyeri, mu rwego rwo kurinda umutekano, gukumira cyangwa kugenza ibyaha.

3º gusaka umuntu, kwinjira mu nyubako cyangwa ahantu hakekwaho kuba hafitanye isano n’amakuru ashakwa hashingiwe ku ruhushya rwo gusaka. Ishobora kandi gusaka umuntu cyangwa ibintu, kwinjira mu nyubako cyangwa ahantu nta ruhushya rwo gusaka iyo hari impamvu zikurikira:

a) impamvu zifatika zituma ikeka ko icyaha kirimo gukorwa cyangwa kigiye gukorwa.
b) hari ibimenyetso bifatika byerekana ko mu nyubako cyangwa ahantu hari ikintu cyakoreshejwe mu gukora icyaha cyangwa gikenewe ku mpamvu z’iperereza.

c) ibimenyetso bikomeye bigaragaza ko umuntu wakoze icyaha ari aho ahantu kandi agomba guhagarikwa.

Muri icyo gihe, hakorwa inyandikomvugo y’isaka hakanakorwa raporo igaragaza impamvu iryo saka ryakozwe nta ruhushya rwo gusaka.

4º kugaruza ibintu byibwe no gufatira imitungo yakwifashishwa mu rwego rwo gukora iperereza nshinjabyaha.

5º gukurikirana itumanaho ry’abantu bakekwaho icyaha.

6º kurinda no gukusanya ibimenyetso by’icyaha no gufatira ibyakoreshejwe icyaha.

7º kwinjira mu nyubako n’ahantu hakekwaho kuba hafitanye isano n’amakuru ashakwa.

8º gutegeka umuntu gutanga amakuru no kubaza umuntu uwo ari we wese ukekwaho ko afite amakuru yafasha mu iperereza.

9º gufata ibipimo, amafoto, amajwi cyangwa amashusho cyangwa andi makuru yose iperereza ryagaragaza ko ari ngombwa.

10º gukora iperereza ndengamipaka.

Aha iperereza ndengamipaka rikorwa RIB ikorana n’inzego z’ubugenzacyaha z’ahandi ibyo mu mategeko bita Commission rogatoire aha urugero twatanga ni ugukorana kwabayeho hagati y’ubugenzacyaha n’ubushinjacyaha bw’u Bubiligi n’u Rwanda ku iperereza ryakorwaga kuri Paul Rusesabagina.

11º gukoresha intwaro n’ibindi bikoresho by’umutekano bya ngombwa mu gushyira mu bikorwa inshingano zayo.

Urwego rw’Ubushinjacyaha Bukuru rukora rute?

Urwego rw’Ubushinjacyaha Bukuru rufite inshingano rusange yo gukora iperereza no gukurikirana ibyaha mu Gihugu hose, bufite ububasha bwo gukora ibintu bikurikira;

1° gukora iperereza ku byaha bikurikiranwa no kuyobora iperereza rikorwa n’Abagenzacyaha.

2° gushinja no kuburana imanza z’inshinjabyaha mu nkiko.

3° kugira uruhare mu gushyiraho ingamba zigomba gukurikizwa mu gukurikirana ibyaha.

4° gufatanya n’izindi nzego z’ubutabera, zaba izo mu Rwanda cyangwa iz’ibindi bihugu, mu bikorwa byo gukurikirana abanyabyaha, kurwanya ubugizi bwa nabi no kurengera abakorewe ibyaha n’abatangabuhamya hakurikijwe amategeko abigenga.

5° gukora indi mirimo iteganywa n’amategeko.

Ku manza mpanabyaha (Criminal Case) umushinjacyaha afite inshingano zo kugenzura ibintu byose guhera ku iperereza kugeza no ku gihe cyo kurangiza urubanza, afite inshingano zo kureba niba uwakatiwe yaragiye kurangiza igihano yahawe. Iyo ari mu manza mbonezamubano (Civil Case) izi nshingano zikorwa n’umuhesha w’inkiko w’umwuga.

Ubushinjacyaha n’ubugenzacyaha buhuriye ku gukora iperereza no guhamagaza abakekwa mu gihe cy’iperereza hagamijwe gukusanya ibimenyetso.

Aho Ubushinjacyaha n’Ubugenzacyaha bitandukanira ni uko Ubushinjacyaha bufite ububasha bwo kuregera urubanza mu rukiko aho rugaragara ari uruhande rushinja byaba ngombwa bukanarujuririra , naho Ubugenzacyaha bwo bukora iperereza bukoherereza ibimenyetso Ubushinjacyaha bukareba niba hari ibimenyetso bihagije butuma buregera urubanza mu Rukiko.

Iyo Umugenzacyaha amenye ko icyaha cyakozwe, ashobora guhita ajya aho cyakorewe iyo bishoboka, akareba uburyo cyakozwemo.
Iyo icyaha cyakozwe ari icyaha cy’ubugome cyangwa gikomeye, Umugenzacyaha wakimenyeshejwe yihutira kukimenyesha Ubushinjacyaha cyangwa urundi rwego cyangwa ikigo bimugenzura. Umushinjacyaha na we ashobora kujya aho icyaha cyakorewe kugira ngo arebe uburyo cyakozwemo.

Iyo Ubushinjacyaha busanze hari ibimenyetso bifatika ku cyaha cyakozwe, butegura inyandiko ikubiyemo ikirego (Indictment) bugashyikiriza ikirego urukiko. Iyo busanze ibimenyetso bidahagije bushobora gutegeka ko Ubugenzacyaha bukusanya ibindi bimenyetso , iyo nabwo bwongeye gusanga ibimenyetso bituzuye butegeka ko Dosiye ishyingurwa (Closure of the Case).

Umushinjacyaha ntiyemerewe gufungura umuntu wafunzwe n’urukiko kabone n’iyo yaba yarasanze arengana. Icyo akora ni ugusubira mu Rukiko agasaba umucamanza kumurekura (Mains levée cyangwa Application for Release). Ibi bikorwa iyo uwasabiwe gufungwa arengana.

Abantu bamwe bakeka ko Ubushinjacyaha n’Ubugenzacyaha bufite inshingano zo gukusanya ibimenyetso bishinja gusa (Inculpatory evidence) nyamara amategeko ateganya ko bafite n’inshingano zo gukusanya ibimenyetso bishinjura ukekwaho icyaha (Exculpatory evidence).

Inshingano za RIB n’iza Polisi ziruzuzanya

Hari abandi bantu usanga bibaza aho inshingano za RIB na Polisi zihurira n’aho zitandukanira. RIB na Polisi biruzuzanya mu mikorere. Polisi ikumira icyaha cyangwa ikakiburizamo kitaraba ikarinda n’umutekano w’abantu n’ibintu. RIB ikora iperereza ku byaha no kuburizamo ibyaha.

Ikindi Polisi ishinzwe kugenzura ko amategeko yubahirizwa hanyuma RIB igakora iperereza ku byaha by’imanza nshinjabyaha.

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