Bigenda bite kugira ngo ifungwa ry’agateganyo rirenge iminsi 30?

Hari igihe wumva umuntu ukurikiranyweho icyaha ngo yafunzwe iminsi 30 y’agateganyo, hanyuma yashira wari witeze ko arekurwa, aho kugira ngo bibe, ikongera ikongerwa. Ese biba byagenze gute? Ese kuyongera hari ingingo z’amategeko biba binyuranyije na zo? Ni byo iyi nkuru isobanura, kugira ngo abantu barusheho gusobanukirwa neza uko amategeko abiteganya.

Hari impamvu zitandukanye amategeko ateganya ko ifungwa ry’iminsi 30 ry’agateganyo rishobora kwiyongera rikaba ryarenga iminsi isanzwe 30. Gusa kugira ngo usobanukirwe neza reka duhere ku nzira umuntu ukurikiranyweho icyaha acamo mbere yo gukatirwa n’urukiko.

Ubundi mu mategeko ukurikiranyweho icyaha aca mu nzira 3 mbere yo gukatirwa n’urukiko. Izo nzira ni igihe cyo gukusanya ibimenyetso (Pre trial phase), igihe cy’iburanisha (Trial phase) n’igihe cy’ikatirwa mu gihe iburanisha rirangiye (Sentencing).

Mu gihe cy’ikusanywa ry’ibimenyetso, abahura n’ushinjwa ni Ubugenzacyaha n’Ubushinjachaha. Mu Rwanda imirimo y’Ubugenzacyaha ikorwa na RIB gusa n’izindi nzego zibihererwa ububasha n’itegeko zishobora gukora izi nshingano (urugero: Urwego rw’Igihugu rushinzwe Abinjira n’Abasohoka). Muri iki cyiciro Ubugenzacyaha bukorana bya hafi n’ubushinjacyaha kugeza igihe uregwa agejejwe mu rukiko aje kuburana ku cyaha aba akurikiranyweho.

Ubushinjachaha bufite inshingano zo gusaba Ubugenzacyaha gukomeza gushaka ibimenyetso mu gihe hari ibigishakishwa biba bitaraboneka bwamara kubona byuzuye bugategura inyandiko ikubiyemo ikirego iba igomba gushyikirizwa urukiko (Indictment).

Mbere y’uko umuntu agezwa imbere y’urukiko nabwo aba ashobora gufungwa by’agateganyo. Amategeko yemerera Ubugenzacyaha n’Ubushinjacyaha gufunga muri cachot by’agateganyo ukekwaho icyaha kugira ngo adacika cyangwa ngo abe yabangamira iperereza rikiri gukorwa.

Mu Bugenzacyaha, itegeko riteganya ko umuntu ashobora gufungwa iminsi itanu. Icyakora iyo Ubushinjacyaha bubonye ko iperereza ritararangira na bwo bwemerewe kumarana umuntu iminsi itanu muri Cachot , ishobora kwiyongeraho indi minsi itanu mu gihe iperereza ritarasozwa.

Iyi minsi itanu yindi ihabwa ukurikiranyweho icyaha nyuma y’urwandiko bita Map itangwa n’Ubushinjachaha isabira ukurikiranyweho icyaha kuguma muri cachot hanyuma ibimenyetso bwamara kubibona bugategura Dossier ikubiyemo ikirego (Indictment cyangwa Acte d’accusation) akaba aribwo bugena niba ikibazo gishobora kujyanwa mu rukiko cyangwa ntikijyanweyo.

Iyo ukurikiranyweho icyaha ageze mu rukiko habanza kubaho kuburana ku ifungwa ry’agateganyo ry’iminsi 30 cyangwa irekurwa uregwa akajya yitaba urukiko avuye hanze.

Aha buri ruhande rutanga impamvu zarwo ku ifungwa cyangwa ku irekurwa ry’agateganyo. Ubushinjacyaha bushobora kuburana bugaragaza ko uregwa arekuwe ashobora guhohotera uwakorewe icyaha (victim), gusibanganya ibimenyetso cyangwa gutoroka ubutabera, n’izindi mpamvu,…

Abunganira uregwa na bo iki gihe bashobora kugaragaza ko uregwa adakwiriye gufungwa iminsi 30 kubera uburwayi afite, imico ye isanzwe ari myiza, uburyo yafatanyije n’Ubugenzacyaha n’Ubushinjacyaha mu gihe cy’iperereza, inshingano afite mu muryango (urugero ari nk’umugore wonsa) n’izindi mpamvu,…

Urukiko ruburanisha ikirego ku ifunga n’ifungurwa ry’agateganyo mu gihe kitarenze iminsi ibiri (2) y’akazi.

Itegeko Nº 027/2019 ryo ku wa 19/09/2019 ryerekeye imiburanishirize y’imanza z’inshinjabyaha …riteganya ko Urukiko rufata icyemezo ku ifunga n’ifungura ry’agateganyo mu gihe kitarenze iminsi itatu (3) y’akazi iburanisha ripfundikiwe.

Umucamanza rero mu gihe cyo gusoma urubanza ku ifungwa n’ifungurwa ry’agateganyo asuzuma impamvu akagena niba ifungwa ry’agateganyo rikwiriye cyangwa ridakwiriye.

Impamvu iminsi y’ifungwa ry’agateganyo ishobora kurenga 30

Mu ngingo ya 79 y’itegeko Nº 027/2019 ryo ku wa 19/09/2019 ryerekeye imiburanishirize y’imanza z’inshinjabyaha hateganya ko icyemezo cy’uko ukurikiranyweho icyaha aba afunzwe by’agateganyo kimara iminsi mirongo itatu (30) habariwemo umunsi cyafashweho.

Iyo iyo minsi irangiye, gishobora kongerwaho indi mirongo itatu (30) bigakomeza gutyo. Kongera icyo gihe cy’iminsi mirongo itatu (30) bigomba gutangirwa ibisobanuro by’icyakozwe mu minsi mirongo itatu (30) ya mbere ku bijyanye n’iperereza n’ikigambiriwe gukorwa muri icyo gihe cy’inyongera gisabwa.

Icyakora, ku byaha byoroheje, iyo igihe cy’iminsi mirongo itatu (30) kirangiye ntigishobora kongerwa. Ku byaha bikomeye, iyo minsi ntishobora kongerwa nyuma y’amezi atatu (3) umuntu afunzwe, na nyuma y’amezi atandatu (6) ku byaha by’ubugome.

Iyo ibihe bivugwa muri iki gika birangiye dosiye idashyikirijwe urukiko, ufunzwe by’agateganyo ararekurwa agakurikiranwa ari hanze.

Icyemezo cyongera ifungwa ry’agateganyo gifatwa n’Urukiko hakurikijwe uburyo n’ibihe biteganywa n’ingingo ya 77 y’itegeko rigena imiburanishirize y’imanza nshinjabyaha .

Icyemezo cyo gufungwa by’agateganyo cyangwa kongera igifungo bigomba gusobanura impamvu zabyo.

Icyemezo cyo gufungura cyangwa kongera igihe cyo gufungwa by’agateganyo, gifatwa n’umucamanza uri hafi y’aho ukurikiranyweho icyaha afungiye amaze gusuzuma niba impamvu zatumye umucamanza wa mbere afata icyemezo cyo gufunga zigihari.

Ifungwa ry’agateganyo rishobora no gutegekwa iyo ukurikiranyweho icyaha atubahirije ku bushake ibyo yategetswe n’urukiko. Iyo umuntu avuye ku ifungwa ry’agateganyo habaho kuburanisha urubanza mu mizi ( hearing to the merits of the case) iburanishwa ry’urubanza mu mizi ni ryo rigena ibihano ku cyaha ushinjwa akurikiranyweho( awarded penalties) cyangwa irekurwa ( release).

Ibindi abasomyi ba Kigali Today mwamenya ni uko mu gihe hatabayeho kuburanisha urubanza mu mizi ngo umuntu akatirwe, ntabwo abarwaho ubusembwa (criminal records).

Mu mahame y’amategeko ubundi bavuga ko ubutabera butinze buba busa n’ubutarabayeho (Justice delayed justice denied ) mu mategeko y’u Rwanda biteganyijwe ko nta muntu uba agomba kumara amezi atandatu urubanza rutaraburanishwa mu mizi ngo akatirwe cyangwa abe umwere arekurwe.

Ubutaha tuzabagezaho n’izindi nkuru zigamije kubongerera ubumenyi mu mategeko kugira ngo murusheho kumenya neza ibyo amategeko ateganya.

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