Amateka ya Banki mu Rwanda: Banki y’Abaturage yatangiranye igishoro cy’ibihumbi 400FRW

Antoine Mugesera, umusaza w’imyaka 77 y’amavuko wahoze uri umusenateri mu Nteko Ishinga Amategeko y’u Rwanda ubu akaba ari mu kiruhuko cy’izabukuru, yibuka ko yatunze konti ya banki bwa mbere mu 1970 muri Banki yitwaga Caisse d’Epargne kugira ngo abone aho azajya acisha umushahara we.

Banki y
Banki y’Abaturage (BPR) yatangiriye ku bihumbi 400Frw none ikorera mu muturirwa w’amamiliyari

Mugesera avuga ko icyo gihe kugira ngo Leta ihembe umukozi yamuhaga igipapuro cyitwaga ‘accreditif’ (twagereranya na cheques z’ubu) akajya kukivunjisha mu mafaranga muri banki, banki na yo ikazagitwara muri Leta ikayiha amafaranga.

Agira ati “Cyari igipapuro wajyanaga muri banki ikaguha amafaranga, na yo ikazakijyana muri Leta kwiyishyuriza mu mafaranga.”

Mugesera avuga ko gufunguza konti no guhabwa inguzanyo nta kintu kidasanzwe bakaga umukiriya gitandukanye n’iby’ubu, cyakora ngo hari ubwo umuntu yashoboraga kubura uburenganzira ku nguzanyo bitewe n’amoko yabaga mu byangombwa.

Mugesera agira ati “Muri za 70 nagiye kwaka inguzanyo yo kubaka barayimpa, ariko nsubiyeyo kwaka iyo kugura imodoka barayinyima.”

Ati “Ntabwo bigeze bambwira ko bayinyimye kubera amoko ariko narabiketse ndabyihorera kuko nabonaga abandi duhuje ibisabwa bazibaha.”

Atugereranyiriza agaciro k’amafaranga y’iki gihe n’ayo mu gihe cya mbere ya 1990, Mugesera avuga ko yatangiye akazi mu 1970 ahembwa ibihumbi 11FRW akaba yarabyakiyeho inguzanyo yo kubaka inzu i Nyamirambo mu Mujyi wa Kigali.

Mu 1978 ageze ku mushahara w’ibihumbi 20FRW, yagiye kuwakiraho inguzanyo yo kugura imodoka ya kamyoneti yo mu bwoko bwa Pegeot 407 yagombaga kwishyura mu myaka ine ariko ntibayimuha.

Ati “Ibihumbi 11 byo muri za 70 yari amafaranga menshi cyane kuko minisitiri w’icyo gihe yahembwa ibihumbi 20FRW, kandi idorali ryavunjanga (agerageza kwibuka) 50FRW.”

BCR yaje guhinduka I&M Bank ni yo mfura y
BCR yaje guhinduka I&M Bank ni yo mfura y’amabanki mu Rwanda

Virginie Mukamugenza, watangiye gukorera Banki ya Kigali (BK) mu 1970 imaze imyaka itatu gusa itangiye, ahamya ko, n’ubwo amabanki nk’ibigo by’ubucuruzi atagenderaga mu bintu by’amoko, hari ubwo amoko yatumaga hari abimwa serivisi.

Agira ati “Nko ku bintu by’inguzanyo kubera ko umuntu yabaga yatanze numero y’indangamuntu mu mwirondoro we, hari ubwo barebagaho basanga uri Umututsi bakayikwima.”

Cyakora, Mukamugenza akavuga ko ubwoko bwagiraga ingaruka kuri iyo serivisi imwe yonyine y’inguzanyo, kandi nabwo bigakorwa na bamwe bari barokamwe n’ivangura rishingiye ku moko.

Hagati aho, mu gihe muri iki gihe, usanga hari amatangazo menshi ya cyamunara kubera abambuye amabanki, Mugesera avuga ko icyo gihe bitabagaho cyane, ariko akavuga ko ahanini bituruka ku kuba hari inyota yo gushaka gukira cyane n’ubunyamugayo buke bw’amabanki.

Atanga urugero rw’inzu “yari ifite agaciro ka miliyari ebyiri z’Amafaranga y’u Rwanda, banki ikayiteza cyamunara ku bihumbi 600FRW”, Mugesera agira ati “Icyo gihe banki zari zikiri nzima zidatesha ikintu agaciro, kandi zigakurikirana abo zahaye inguzanyo ngo zirebe ko bazibyaza umusaruro ariko ubu zirebera ingwate gusa.”

U Rwanda rwagize banki ya mbere rwihariye mu 1963

Mbere y’uko u Rwanda ruhabwa ubwigenge, rwakoreshaga banki imwe rwari ruhuriyeho na Repubulika Iharanira Demokarasi ya Kongo ndetse n’u Burundi yafatwaga nka Banki y’Igihugu y’ibyo bihugu byabumbatirwaga hamwe mu cyitwaga “Congo-Belge, Rwanda-Urundi”.

Antoine Mugesera, watangiye akazi mu 1970 ubwo yari arangije icyiciro cya kabiri cya Kaminuza i Kinshasa, avuga ko Kongo imaze kubona ubwigenge mu 1960 hagiyeho ikimeze nka banki ya Rwanda-Urundi bitaga ‘Union Economique et Monétaire du Rwanda-Urundi’ hanyuma muri Mata 1964 hatangira Banki y’Igihugu y’u Rwanda nyirizina.

Hagati aho ariko, mu 1963, Abanyarwanda bari bamaze gusa n’abahumuka bamaze kubona ko hari inyungu mu bucuruzi bw’amabanki bituma batangiza Banki y’u Rwanda y’Ubucuruzi yari izwi nka ‘Banque Commerciale du Rwanda (BCR),’ itangije igishoro cya miliyoni 15FRW. BCR ikaba yaraje gukuramo akayo karenge igurwa na I&M Bank muri 2012.

Byabaye nk’ibicira inzira andi mabanki kuko guhera icyo gihe mu Rwanda hatangiye kuvuka amabanki ubutitsa dore ko mu 1967 ari bwo Banki y’Igihugu Itsura Amajyambere (BRD) yahise ifungura imiryango n’ “igishoro cya miliyoni 50FRW” ndetse na Banki ya Kigali (BK) yatangiranye igishoro cya miliyoni 40FRW nk’uko Mugesera abisobanura.

Ishami rya Banki ya Kigali rya Nyagatare
Ishami rya Banki ya Kigali rya Nyagatare

BK ni imwe mu mabanki yateye imbere cyane kuko mu mpera z’umwaka w’ingengo y’imari wa 2017-2018 yari igeze ku mari mbumbe ya miliyari 731.8FRW ivuye kuri miliyoni 40FRW mu 1967.

Mugesera wanakoze muri Minisiteri y’Ubucuruzi n’Inganda hagati ya 1970-1980 ashinzwe gukurikirana ubucuruzi muri rusange n’amabuye y’agaciro by’umwihariko, avuga ko mu 1975, hahise haza icyitwaga “Caisse Hypotécaire”, iyi banki ikaba yari izwiho cyane gutanga inguzanyo z’ubwubatsi.

Nyuma y’umwaka umwe (1976) hahita havuka Banki y’Abaturage (BPR), Mugesera avuga ko yatangiranye igishoro cy’ibihumbi 400FRW. Nyuma gato, mu 1984 hahise havuka indi banki yitwa BAKAR itaramaze igihe kuko itongeye kumvikana nyuma ya Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi mu 1994.

N’ubwo nta makuru menshi Kigali Today yashoboye kubibonaho, mu gihe mu Rwanda hatari hakaje amabanki, Iposita y’u Rwanda yifashishwaga nka banki igatanga serivisi zose nk’iz’amabanki.

Mu myaka yo hambere ndetse kugeza mu 1994, wasangaga abantu bataritabira amabanki cyane kuko nka Virginie Mukamugenza, umwe mu bakozi bakoreye BK igitangira, avuga ko ubwo yayigeragamo mu 1970, yari ifite abakiriya ibihumbi 28 gusa.

Banki y’Abaturage yaje ari igisubizo muri rubanda

Mu gihe izindi banki twabonye hejuru zatangiye ari banki z’ubucuruzi zibonwamo n’abacuruzi n’abakozi ba Leta, Banki y’Abaturage (BPR) yaje ije gusubiza ikibazo cy’abahinzi n’abandi baturage bafite ubushobozi buke.

Vénuste Kayigamba, umwe mu bakoreye BPR mu mizo yayo kuko yatangiye gukoramo mu 1982, avuga ko BPR yatangiriye ahitwa i Ngamba mu cyari Perefegitura ya Kibungo, itangira yitwa “Union des Banques Populaires (UBP)” igizwe n’amashyirahamwe y’abaturage yo kubitsa no kugurizanya.

Kubera ko mu mizo yayo yatangiranye amafaranga make dore ko Antoine Mugesera avuga ko yatangiranye igishoro cy’ibihumbi 400FRW, UBP ngo yatangiye ifashwa n’u Busuwisi mu gihe cy’imyaka itanu mbere y’uko icutswa igatangira kwirwanaho nk’andi mabanki.

Kayigamba avuga ko umwaka wa mbere bayihaye 100% by’amafaranga yari yarakoresheje mu guhemba abakozi, kugura ibikoresho n’indi mirimo yose yari yakoze muri uwo mwaka, uwa kabiri bayiha 80%, uwa gatatu 60%, uwa kane 40%, naho uwa gatanu ari na wo wa nyuma ihabwa 20%.

Kugira ngo umuntu abe umunyamuryango wa UBPR ngo byamusabaga umugabane we, wanganaga na 200FRW ariko ngo uko zagendaga zikura umugabane ugenda uzamuka.

Nta mugore wari wemerewe kugira konti

Bernadette Mwamini, umukecuru wo mu kigero cy’imyaka nka 72, yafunguje bwa mbere konti muri banki mu 1985 nabwo bigoranye kuko kugira ngo umugore atunge konti byasabaga ko umugabo we abanza kubimuhera uburenganzira imbere ya banki agiye kubera umukiriya.

Agira ati “Ntabwo byari byoroshye kuko wabanzaga gusaba uburenganzira uwo mwashakanye, ntabwo umugore yari yemerewe kugira konti ya banki.”

Mwamini avuga ko n’ubwo gufunguza konti byari bigoranye kuko byasabaga uburenganzira bw’umugabo, Banki y’Abaturage ni yo ya mbere yafunguriye imiryango abagore.

Ati “Maze kuyifunguza numvise nishimye kuko nari ngiye kugira akantu kanjye nigengaho. Mbere yaho (mbere y’uko Banki y’Abaturage itangira) nta n’ubwo byari byemewe na gato ko umugore atunga konti.”

Mwamini ariko avuga ko n’ubusanzwe umugore nta mutungo yagiraga cyane ko nta n’akazi bagiraga, ndetse akishimira ko kuri ubu umugore usanga yarahawe uburenganzira ku buryo agira imitungo ye ntawe umubangamiye.

Ikoranabuhanga mu mabanki

Virginie Mukamugenza watangiye gukorera BK imaze imyaka itatu gusa itangiye, avuga ko iyo banki kugeza ubu ifatwa nk’imwe muri banki zifite udushya twinshi mu ikoranabuhanga mu Rwanda, dore ko isa n’iyatangiye gukoresha ikoranabuhanga mu 1998.

Agira ati “Mu 1998 nibwo twatangiye gukoresha mudasobwa twese, (aseka) ubundi habaga mudasobwa imwe ishyirwamo amakuru yose ya banki y’ibyo twakoze tubikoze n’intoki hanyuma yo ikabika ku ma “disques”.

Mu gihe banki zo mu Rwanda zatangiye gukoresha ikoranabuhanga mu 1998, ubu muntu ashobora gukanda kuri telephone ye akabikuza amafaranga kuri konti ye iri muri banki
Mu gihe banki zo mu Rwanda zatangiye gukoresha ikoranabuhanga mu 1998, ubu muntu ashobora gukanda kuri telephone ye akabikuza amafaranga kuri konti ye iri muri banki

Mukamugenza avuga ko wasangaga ku ishami rya banki hari mudasobwa imwe noneho buri mugoroba uko barangije akazi bakinjizamo ibyo biriwe bakora byose n’intoki noneho bigahurizwa muri mudasobwa imwe ku rwego rw’igihugu, ari na ho bakuriragamo ayo makuru bakayabika kuri “disque”.

Avuga ko icyo gihe umuntu wajyaga gufunguza konti muri BK bamuhaga ikarita iriho umwirondoro we ndetse azajya yifashisha agiye kubitsa ndetse n’agakarine (carnet de chèques) azajya yifashisha agiye kubikuza.

Nubwo atibuka neza umubare w’amafaranga umuntu yagombaga kuba afite kugira ngo afunguze konti, Mukamugenza avuga ko hari amafaranga bategekaga umuntu gushyira kuri konti kuko habaga hagomba kuvamo 1,500FRW ya “carnet de cheque” ndetse n’ayo kumukorera ifishi.

Mukamugenza avuga ko mu 1980, ubwo serivisi za banki zose zatangiraga gukorwa hifashishijwe ikoranabuhaga, muri BK bahuye n’akazi katoroshye ko gufata amadosiye yose y’abanyamuryango bakayandika muri mudasobwa.

Agira ati “Bashyizeho itsinda rifata amakonti y’abanyamuryango n’amakuru yayo ikagenda iyashyira muri mudasobwa. Akazi kabaye kenshi ariko nyine ni uko byakozwe.”

Impinduka zazanywe n’ikoranabuhanga mu mabanki

Mukamugenza yibuka ko mbere y’uko banki zitangira gukoresha mudasobwa, kugira ngo umukiliya umwe abitse cyangwa abikuze amafaranga ye byasabaga ko ahabwa serivisi n’abantu batatu batandukanye.

Agira ati “Ikoranabuhanga ryihutishije akazi cyane kuko niba ushyize izina ry’umukiliya muri mudasobwa ugahita ubona umwirondoro we ntabwo wabaga ugikeneye kujya kugenzura andi makuru amwerekeyeho.”

Avuga ko bagikoresha intoki byose nko kugira ngo uhe umuntu amafaranga, ukora kuri guichet yagombaga kubanza kujya kureba ukora muri serivisi ishinzwe “carnet de cheque” kugenzura koko ko iyo chèque ari iye no kureba ko ari we koko wayifashe.

Agira ati “Kugenzura amakuru y’umukiliya umwe gusa wasangaga bishobora gufata nk’iminota 10 ariko tumaze kwinjira mu ikoranabuhanga wapfaga kwandikamo izina rye gusa byose bigahita biza.”

Mu rwego rwo gutuma abakiliya batinubira serivisi, Mukamugenza avuga ko abakiliya banini nka za Utexrwa, Sulfo n’abandi babaga barashyiriweho umukozi ubasanga iwabo akabaha serivi bifuza zose batiriwe bajya guta umwanya kuri banki. Uretse ibyo kandi, ngo ahantu hahurira abantu benshi babonaga hari abakiliya benshi (urugero nko kuri Hotel Milles Collines) bahitaga bahashyira agashami.

Uyu mukecuru wo mu kigero cy’imyaka nka 70 akomeza avuga ko igihe bari bagikoresha intoki, mu mpera z’ukwezi babaga bafite akazi kenshi cyane kuko abenshi mu bakozi ba Leta bahemberwaga muri BK.

Ati “Guhera nko mu 1984-1985 abakozi ba Leta hafi ya bose bategetswe guhemberwa muri BK. Mu mpera z’ukwezi wasangaga dufite akazi gakomeye kuko boherezaga lisite y’imishahara ukaba ugomba kugenda ubara ayo mafaranga uyashyira kuri konti ya buri mukozi.”

MENYA UMWANDITSI

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Ibitekerezo   ( 2 )

Mwatubariza Nyakubahwa Antoni Mugesera uruhare abapadiri, cyane cyane abadominikani, nafatanyije naza ambassades harimo cyane Abasuwisi, baba baragize mu kwigisha abanyarwanda kuzigama muri za Banki. Ndumva ari ngombwa. Murakoze.

Gustave Ineza yanditse ku itariki ya: 18-06-2019  →  Musubize

Aho BPR yatangiriye ni i Nkamba, si Ngamba. Ubu ni mu Murenge wa Ruramira, Akarere ka Kayonza.

Diogene yanditse ku itariki ya: 13-06-2019  →  Musubize

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Igitekerezo cyanyu kiragaragara kuri Kigali Today nyuma y'isuzuma kandi mu gihe kidatinze. Udashaka ko izina ryanyu rimenyekana wakoresha alias, Turabashimiye.

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