Menya byinshi kuri Pariki y’Ibirunga icumbikiye ingagi utasanga ahandi

Pariki y’Igihugu y’Ibirunga, ibarizwa mu Majyaruguru y’u Rwanda. Iyo Pariki ifatiye benshi runini kuko uretse kuba Abanyarwanda bayivomamo ubukungu buturuka ku byiza nyaburanga biyibamo, ni n’isoko y’ibyishimo ku banyamahanga batari bacye bayisura ngo birebere bimwe mu bigize urusobe rw’ibinyabuzima rwaho.

Ingagi zo mu Birunga ni zo zisurwa cyane kurusha izindi nyamaswa zo muri iyo Pariki
Ingagi zo mu Birunga ni zo zisurwa cyane kurusha izindi nyamaswa zo muri iyo Pariki

Iyo Pariki yemejwe bwa mbere mu mwaka w’1925. Icyo gihe cyari igice gikora ku birunga bya Kalisimbi, Bisoke, na Mikeno, ni nayo Pariki nkuru y’Igihugu yashinzwe bwa mbere ku mugabane wa Afurika.

Uko imyaka yagiye ishira, ni nako ubuso bw’iyo Pariki bwagurwaga ndetse mu mwaka w’1929 yakoraga ku gice cy’uruhande rw’u Rwanda na Kongo Mbiligi y’icyo gihe ariyo Repubulika Iharanira Demokarasi ya Kongo y’ubu. Abakoloni b’Ababiligi bakoronizaga ibyo bihugu byombi bamaze kuyagurira ku ubuso bwa Km² 8090 bayihaye izina rya Parc National Albert, dore ko ari nabo bayicungaga.

Kuyicunga kw’abo bakoloni bishingiye ku kuba bari bamaze kubona ko urusobe rw’ibinyabuzima byo muri iyi Pariki ruhishe ubukungu bwinshi.

Ubwo mu mwaka w’1960 Congo (Icyahoze ari Zaïre) yabonaga ubwigenge, ndetse n’u Rwanda rukaza kububona mu w’1962, Pariki y’Igihugu y’Ibirunga yari ihuriweho n’ibyo bihugu byombi yaje gucikamo ibice bibiri, buri gihugu gitangira kubungabunga uruhande rwacyo.

Amatsiko y’abashakashatsi ku miterere ya Pariki y’Ibirunga

Dusubiye inyuma gato mu mwaka w’1902, ni bwo Umudage witwa Capt. Robert Von Beringei yageze muri Pariki y’Igihugu y’Ibirunga. Icyo gihe ahuriramo n’inyamaswa atahise amenya iyo ariyo, kuko n’ubundi no mu mateka y’ibya siyansi nta muntu wari wakamenye ibiyerekeyeho.

Icyo gihe Capt. Von Beringei wari n’umusirikari, yarashe inyamaswa, yohereza bimwe mu bice byayo I Berlin mu Budage ari nabwo abahanga basesenguye imiterere y’iyo nyamaswa, byemezwa ko ari Ingagi, amateka yayo aba yiyanditse atyo.

Umunyamerika Diane Fossey wihebeye ingagi wazikoragaho n
Umunyamerika Diane Fossey wihebeye ingagi wazikoragaho n’ubushakashatsi

Ingagi ikimara kuvumburwa, Abashakashatsi mu birebana na zo ntibasibaga muri iyo Pariki, bituma mu mwaka w’1967, Umunyamerika w’umushakashatsi mu birebana niIbidukikije, Diana Fossey, wamenyekanye mu Rwanda ku izina rya Nyiramacibiri, na we atangira gukora ubushakashatsi ku ngagi.

Uwo yibukirwa ku bikorwa birebana no gukurikirana no gucukumbura byimbitse imibereho y’Ingagi, no kuzimenyekanisha mu ruhando mpuzamahanga, binyuze mu Kigo cyitwa Karisoke Research Centre yashinze.

Iyo Pariki ikora ku birunga bitanu biri mu Majyaruguru y’u Rwanda

Pariki y’Igihugu y’Ibirunga ifite ubuso bwa Km2 450, buhuriweho n’ibihugu nk’u Rwanda, RDC na Uganda yaje kwiyongeraho nyuma. Muri ubwo buso bwose, mu mwaka w’1958 u Rwanda rwonyine rwari rwihariye Km2 338, ariko uko imyaka yagiye ishira, ubuso bwagiye bugabanuka bitewe n’uko abantu bayadukiriye, batangira gutema amashyamba, gushimuta inyamaswa no gutura mu bice byayo.

Pariki y’Igihugu y’Ibirunga ikora ku birunga bitanu by’u Rwanda ari byo: Kalisimbi, Bisoke, Sabyinyo, Gahinga na Muhabura. Inyamaswa n’ibimera biyibarizwamo, bigenda bitandukana bitewe n’ubutumburuke cyangwa imiterere yorohereza buri kinyabuzima cyaho kuhaba nta nkomyi.

Nk’ubu iyo Pariki ifite igice cy’ishyamba ry’imisozi migufi, icyakora igice cyaryo kinini cyo gihingwa n’Abaturage. Uhereye kuri metero 2400 na 2500 z’ubutumburuke, habarizwa ishyamba ryo mu bwoko bwa Néoboutonia. Ku butumburuke bwa metero 2500 kugeza kuri 3200 ni ishyamba ry’Urugano ryihariye 30% by’ubuso bwa Pariki yose.

Uko ubutumburuke bugenda buzamuka, ni nako muri iyi Pariki hagaragara amoko atandukanye y’amashyamba arimo ibiti kimeza, ibyatsi n’ibindi bimera by’amoko atandukanye bigenda birushaho kuba bigufi uko byegera buri gasongero k’ikirunga, kugeza ubwo ku dusongero twa bimwe mu birunga nka Muhabura na Bisoke, hejuru ku gasongero muri ibyo byombi uhasanga ikiyaga gito.

Inkima ziri mu nyamaswa udashobora kubura muri Pariki y
Inkima ziri mu nyamaswa udashobora kubura muri Pariki y’Igihugu y’Ibirunga

Mu myaka ikabakaba 70 ishize ingamba zo kurinda iyo Pariki zari hasi cyane

Mu gihe cy’ubukoloni ndetse n’imyaka yakurikiye Ubwigenge, bigaragara ko uruhare rw’Ubuyobozi bw’u Rwanda n’abaturage mu ngamba zo kubungabunga Pariki rwari ruke.

Hagati y’umwaka w’1958-1980, ibikorwa biyangiza, byagize umuvuduko ukomeye, bigabanya n’umubare w’ingagi muri icyo gihe zabaga muri Pariki yose, aho zavuye kuri 450 zigera kuri 250.

Mu ntangiriro z’uwo mwaka w’1980, muri iyi Pariki hatangiye gahunda y’Ubukerarugendo bwibandaga ku gusura ingagi cyane kuruta ibindi binyabuzima byari muri iyo Pariki. Icyo gihe ni nabwo ubukangurambaga bugaragaza inyungu zaturukaga kuri Pariki mu gihe yari kuba ibungabunzwe neza bwatangiye. Bituma imibare y’abasura Pariki icyo gihe igenda izamuka, ku buryo byageze mu mwaka w’1989 isurwa n’abakerarugendo bagera ku 7000.

Ingamba zo kuyibungabunga zariyongeye, ubukerarugendo burazamuka

Iyo Pariki ifite umwihariko wo kuba icyanya cy’ingagi zo mu misozi (Gorilla Beringei), ari na zo ziri ku isonga mu binyabuzima biyibamo bikurura abantu benshi bayisura.

Izindi nyamaswa z’inyamabere zigaragara muri iyo Pariki ni inkima, inzovu, imbogo, impyisi, impongo. Hanabarizwa kandi amoko atandukanye y’inyoni, ibikururanda, udukoko n’andi moko atandukanye y’inyamaswa.

Abasura Pariki y
Abasura Pariki y’Ibirunga bariyongereye

Uko bwacyaga bukira, ni nako hashyirwagaho ingamba nshya, izindi zikavugururwa, mu rwego rwo kurushaho kubungabunga iyo Pariki.

Uwingeri Prosper, Umuyobozi wa Pariki y’Igihugu y’Ibirunga yagize ati: “Pariki yagiye igira uruhurirane rw’ibikorwa biyangiriza mu bihe bitandukanye. Aho bigaragariye ko kubungabunga ubusugire bwayo bishoboka kandi ko byaba isoko y’inyungu zifatiye Abanyarwada runini, icyakozwe cy’ibanze ni ugukumira ko ibyo bikomeza: nko kurinda ko abantu bakomeza kuyisatira bayituramo, gukumira ko bayihindura icyanya cy’ubuhinzi no kugabanya ibikorwa bya ba rushimusi bahoragamo bica zimwe mu nyamaswa zibamo”.

Mu cyerekezo 2020 cyashyizweho mu mwaka wa 2000 mu rwego rw’ubukerarugendo nyuma y’uko byari bimaze kugaragara ko ari inkingi y’ubukungu ikomeye, cyane cyane mu guteza imbere igihugu no guhindura imibereho y’Abanyarwanda. Leta yashyizeho ingamba zo kumvikanisha akamaro ubukerarugendo bufite mu gihugu no ku rwego mpuzamahanga, hongerwa imbaraga mu guhuza uruhare rw’Abaturage n’Abayobozi mu kuyibungabunga.

Hari abafata Ingagi nk’Umwami wa Pariki y’Igihugu y’Ibirunga

Ingagi ziza ku isonga mu binyabuzima byo muri iyo Pariki bifatiye abantu runini, ku buryo bigera n’aho bamwe bayita “Umwami wa Pariki y’Ibirunga”, bitewe n’uko mu basura iyo Pariki umubare munini ari ababa bafite amatsiko menshi kuri zo.

Mu hantu ziboneka hacye cyane ku Isi by’umwihariko muri Pariki y’Igihugu y’Ibirunga, ni inyamaswa irusha izindi imbaraga. Ishinguye mu gihagararo, dore ko nk’ubundi bwoko bw’inyamaswa zimenyereweho kugira ibigango n’imbaraga zituma zikangaranya abantu nk’intare n’ingwe zo zitaba muri iyo Pariki.

Uwingeri ati: “Kuba hari abita ingagi Umwami wa Pariki y’Igihugu y’Ibirunga, byaba bifitanye isano rwose, ahubwo umuntu ntiyanatinya kuvuga ko yaba n’umwami wa Pariki zose. Kuko niba mu nyamaswa zose dufite, ariyo ifite umwihariko udasanzwe wo kuba iboneka hacye cyane, ikiharira ubudasa butera abantu amashyushyu n’amatsiko yo kuyireba n’amaso kandi bisabye n’ikiguzi kitari gito, uwo mwihariko ubwawo uyishyira mu rwego rwo hejuru”.

Uko umusaruro uva mu bukerarugendo ugenda wiyongera, biha Leta umukoro wo kureba uko ibivamo bikoreshwa mu bikorwa bifitiye Abanyarwanda akamaro. Nk’ubu mu mwaka wa 2005, hashyizweho gahunda yo gusangira no gusaranganya n’abaturiye Pariki inyungu z’umutungo uturuka k’ubukerarugendo (Revenue Sharing).

Abaturage bungukiye mu gusaranganya umutungo ukomoka muri iyo Pariki

Ubwo gahunda yo gusaranganya inyungu z’umutungo ukomoka ku bukerarugendo yatangiraga, abaturage bo mu mirenge 12 ikora kuri Pariki y’Igihugu y’Ibirunga bagenerwaga inyungu y’amafaranga angana na 5% buri mwaka. Ariko uko imyaka yagiye ishira, ayo mafaranga yarongerewe, agera ku 10%.

Byanyuze mu kubegereza ibikorwa remezo nk’ashuli, amavuriro, amashanyarazi, amazi, amazu meza, ndetse no gutera inkunga imishinga y’amakoperative akora ubuhinzi, ubworozi, n’ubukorikori.

Imwe mu mahoteri meza yubatswe muri iyo Pariki
Imwe mu mahoteri meza yubatswe muri iyo Pariki

Miliyari zisaga ebyiri z’amafaranga y’u Rwanda kugeza mu mwaka wa 2019 uhereye igihe iyo gahunda yatangiriye, niyo yari amaze gukoreshwa muri ibyo bikorwa.

Ibikorwa remezo byihariye 67%, imishinga y’ubuhinzi n’ubworozi yo ikiharira 25%, igice gisigaye cyakoreshejwe mu gutunganya urukuta n’Umusingi bikumira inyamaswa zonera abaturage no gushyigikira Ikigega gishinzwe indishyi ku byangizwa n’inyamaswa za Pariki.

Uwingeri Prosper ati: “Iyi gahunda ubwayo, ndetse n’ibindi bikorwa by’ishoramari byashyizweho ngo biyishyigikire, byazanye impinduka zikomeye mu baturage binyuze mu kubaha akazi ko kwishyiriraho ibyo bikorwa ubwabo, baboneraho kwikura mu bukene. Byatumye bafunguka amaso barushaho kumva akamaro ka Pariki n’uruhare rukomeye ifite ku bukungu bwabo”.

Ati “Nk’urugero rw’ahubatswe igikorwa remezo runaka nk’amashuri cyangwa umuhanda, abaturage bongerewe ubushobozi mu buryo bw’amafaranga, bagira uruhare mu kubyiyubakira, ndetse na nyuma yaho ubwo byari byuzuye, batangira kubivomamo igisubizo cy’ibyo bari bakeneye. Nk’iyo mihanda barayikoresha mu buhahirane, ayo mashuri abana babo bayigiramo, n’ibindi n’ibindi”.

Buri uko umwaka utashye, niko umutungo uva muri Pariki ugenda wiyongera bishingiye ku bwiyongere bw’abayisura. Nk’ubu mu mwaka wa 2019 iyo Pariki yinjije miliyoni zisaga 26 z’Amadorari ya Amerika.

Uko umutungo ukomoka muri iyi Pariki ugenda wiyongera ni nako bikurura ishoramari ritari iry’Abanyarwanda gusa, ahubwo n’Abanyamahanga. Urugero rutangwa n’Umuyobozi wa Pariki y’Igihugu y’Ibirunga ni urw’Amahoteli yubatswe, yo ku rwego mpuzamahanga. Muri yo hari iyitwa Singita, One&Only Gorilla Nest, Bisate Lodge, Sabyinyo Silvaback Lodge n’izindi.

Yagize ati: “Ayo mahoteli yose arinjiza kuko benshi mu basura Pariki niho bacumbika. Urebye umubare w’abayakoramo bahembwa amafaranga atunga imiryango yabo, abakora mu byo gutwara ba mukerarugendo, amashyirahamwe y’abaturage bacuruza ibintu bitandukanye ba mukerarugendo bakenera. Muri make, twavuga ko iyi Pariki ari isoko ry’uruhurirane rw’ibintu byinshi bizanira abantu benshi inyungu, atari abayituriye gusa ahubwo n’Igihugu cyose”.

Abari ba rushimusi bayobotse imishinga ifite aho ihuriye no kubungabunga Pariki

Abahoze mu bikorwa y’ubushimusi bw’inyamaswa no kwangiza Pariki mu bundi buryo, uko bagiye bigishwa bagiye bareka ibyo bikorwa, bayoboka indi mishinga ifite aho ihuriye no kubungabunga Pariki.

Ubu mu mashyirahamwe 70 ahuriyemo abakabakaba ibihumbi 4 barimo n’abahoze mu bushimusi, bashishikajwe n’ibikorwa by’ubuhinzi n’ubworozi mu makoperative. Ibyo binabafasha gukora ishoramari ku giti cyabo, bikunganira umusaruro ukomoka ku madevise ava mu bukerarugendo babona buri mwaka.

Abizihirwa n’ibirori byo ‘Kwita izina’ abana b’ingangi babikesha iyi Pariki

Umuhango wo kwita izina ingagi witabirwa n
Umuhango wo kwita izina ingagi witabirwa n’abantu b’ingeri zose ari abo mu gihugu n’abaturuka hanze yacyo, aha hari muri 2019

Buri mwaka mu Rwanda haba umunsi wo Kwita izina abana b’ingagi. Pariki y’Igihugu y’Ibirunga ifatwa nk’isoko y’ibyo birori bibera mu murenge wa Kinigi mu Karere ka Musanze kuko ibaye itariho n’urwo rusobe rw’ibinyabuzima rugizwe n’ibimera n’inyamaswa zirimo n’ingagi bihuruza ba mukerarugendo ntirwashoboka.

Ibyo birori byitabirwa n’abantu ibihumbi baturuka impande zose z’isi, bo mu byiciro bitandukanye. Urwego rw’Igihugu rw’Iterambere (RDB) rwakunze kugaragaza kenshi ko ari n’umwanya u Rwanda ruba rubonye wo kugaragaza ibikorwa byagezweho n’ibigikenewe gushyirwamo imbaraga, kugira ngo hubakwe amateka mashya yo kubungabunga iyo Pariki no kurengera urusobe rw’ibinyabuzima biyibarizwamo by’umwihariko ingagi.

Ni ibirori biba biryoheye ijisho
Ni ibirori biba biryoheye ijisho

Muri rusange muri Pariki y’Igihugu y’Ibirunga ku ruhande rw’u Rwanda, habarizwa Ingagi zirenga 360 ziri mu moko atandukanye y’inyamaswa zonsa ziba muri iyo Pariki.

Kwita Izina abana b
Kwita Izina abana b’Ingagi aba ari n’umwanya wo kuzirikana akamaro k’iyi Pariki
Uwingeri Prosper Umuyobozi wa Pariki y
Uwingeri Prosper Umuyobozi wa Pariki y’Igihugu y’Ibirunga
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