Ibihingwa byahinduriwe uturemangingo nta ngaruka bigira ku buzima bw’umuntu - Ubushakashatsi

Hashize imyaka itari mike bimwe mu bihugu byo hirya no hino ku Isi byaratangiye gukora imbuto z’ibihingwa binyuranye, zihinduriye uturemangingo ari byo byitwa LMO (Living Modified Organisms), bigakorwa bitewe n’icyo bifuza ko iryo koranabuhanga (Biotechnology) rigeraho, abashakashatsi bakemeza ko ibyera kuri ibyo bihingwa nta ngaruka n’imwe bigira ku buzima bw’umuntu, kuko hari abavuga ko byateza indwara ntacyo bashingiyeho.

Umuceri w
Umuceri w’umuhondo (golden rice), wongerewe vitamine A binyuze mu ikoranabuhanga rya LMO

Ahanini igihingwa gihindurirwa uturemangingo (DNA) hagamijwe ko wenda cyongera umusaruro, kucyongeramo intungamubiri kidasanganywe (vitamins), cyihanganira izuba, cyihanganira indwara, kiticwa n’imvura nyinshi, kidakenera guterwa imiti irwanya ibyonnyi cyangwa iyakoreshwaga ikagabanuka cyane, kukigabanyiriza igihe cyo kwera n’ibindi byinshi bitewe n’ikibazo kibangamiye abahinzi kigomba gukemuka.

Ibyo bihingwa rero bizwiho kurwanya inzara mu bihugu byemeye gukoresha iryo koranabuhanga, bitewe n’uko bitanga umusaruro utubutse, kandi bigahendukira umuhinzi kuwugeraho kuko ahinga imbuto azi neza uko izitwara mu murima, bityo n’igiciro ku isoko kikajya hasi ugereranyije n’ibisanzwe.

Ibihingwa kugeza ubu byahinduriwe uturemangingo kandi bikaba biri ku masoko yo hirya no hino ku Isi, byiganjemo ibigori, ingano, ipamba, ipapayi, umuceri n’ibindi byinshi. Iryo koranabuhanga rikaba rinakoreshwa ku matungo n’ibindi binyabuzima nk’indabo n’ibiti. Ibihugu bizwi cyane mu gukoresha iri koranabuhanga ni nka Amerika, Brazil, u Bushinwa, Afrika y’Epfo, Egypt, Bangladesh n’ibindi byinshi.

Kugeza ubu mu Rwanda nta bihingwa byakoresheje iri koranabunga rya LMO bihari kuko nta mbuto yabyo iratangira gutumizwa, bitewe n’uko Leta y’u Rwanda itarasohora itegeko rijyane no kugaragaza imikorere n’ubwirinzi bwakoresheje iri koranabunga rizwi nka ‘Biosafety Law’, nk’uko bivugwa na Dr Athanase Nduwumuremyi, umushakashatsi mu Kigo cy’Igihugu cyita ku buhinzi n’ubworozi (RAB), akaba anakuriye umushinga wa OFAB (Open Forum on Agricultural Biotechnology in Africa) mu Rwanda, ukurikirana iby’iryo koranabuhanga abisobanura.

Ati “Kugeza ubu mu Rwanda izo mbuto ntizirahingwa kuko tugikora ubushakashatsi, ikindi hari amabwiriza n’amategeko agomba kuba ahari, mu Rwanda itegeko ntirirasohoka, twiteze ko rizasohoka vuba, kugira ngo ibyo dukora mu bushakashatsi bidakomeza kuguma mu bubiko”.

Arongera ati “Ubu mu Rwanda hari itegeko ritwemerera gukora ubushakashatsi kuri ibyo bihingwa, ariko iritwemerera kubigeza ku bahinzi ari na bo bigenewe ntirirasohoka. Turaritegereje rero kandi twizeye ko mu minsi ya vuba rizasohoka”.

Ibigori bya LMO bitanga umusaruro utubutse, kandi nta kibazo bitera ababirya
Ibigori bya LMO bitanga umusaruro utubutse, kandi nta kibazo bitera ababirya

Iryo koranabuhanga rifite inkomoko muri Amerika, ariko ryagiye rikwira mu bindi bihugu binyuze mu masezerano atandukanye byasinye, arimo cyane cyane ayiswe ‘Cartagena Protocol’, mu karere u Rwanda ruherereyemo ubwo buryo bukaba bukoreshwa muri Kenya na Ethiopia.

Ubuziranenge bw’ibihingwa bya LMO

Dr Nduwumuremyi ni umwe mu bashakashatsi wemeza ko ibihingwa byahinduriwe uturemangingo nta kibazo na kimwe biteza ubuzima bw’umuntu, kuko ubuziranenge bwabyo (Biosafety) buba bwaragenzuwe bihagije. Ibi kandi bishimangirwa n’inyandiko z’ishami ry’Umuryango w’Abibumbye ryita ku buzima (WHO), iryita ku buhinzi (FAO) n’indi miryango mpuzamahanga ifite aho ihuriye n’ubuhinzi, ubuzima n’ibidukikije, ko nta ngaruka zihari zatewe n’ibihingwa byakoresheje bene iri koranabunga rya LMO.

Ati “Ibi bihingwa nta kibazo na kimwe bifite ku muntu ubiriye kuko bifite ubuziranenge bwizewe, cyane ko inzira binyuramo ari ndende kugira ngo bigere ku isoko. Binyura mu bigo bikomeye byaba mpuzamahanga, nk’uko mu Rwanda REMA, RICA na Rwanda FDA, bigomba kubanza kubigenzura mu gihe byaba byageze mu Rwanda. Bivuze ko ntabyuka ngo nkore imbuto runaka nshyire ku isoko ibyo bigo bitabitangiye uburenganzira”.

Umushakashatsi ku binyabuzima akaba n’inzobere mu by’imbuto muri Kaminuza ya California, Los Angeles (UCLA) muri Leta Zunze Ubumwe za Amerika, Robert Goldberg, na we yemeza ko ibiribwa bya LMO byujuje ubuziranenge, akaba yarabigaragarije mu ruhando rw’abashakashatsi muri 2016.

Yagize ati “Amamiliyoni y’uturemangingo yakozweho ubushakashatsi atanga ibihingwa n’ibindi bitandukanye biri ku isi, kandi amamiliyari y’abantu arabirya nta kibazo bagize”.

Mugenzi we Prof. Edward Parson, Umunyamerika w’impuguke mu mategeko ajyanye n’ibidukikije, abajijwe ku buziranenge bw’ibiribwa bya LMO yagize ati “Nta kintu kibi wabibonaho. Nyuma y’imwaka 25 ibihingwa bya LMO biri muri Amerika ya ruguru, nta kibazo na kimwe byigeze biteza”.

Ibi biravugwa mu gihe hari abantu hirya no hino ku Isi, cyane cyane mu bihugu by’i Burayi bagaragaza ko ibyo biribwa bishobora gutera indwara, ari yo mpamvu abashakashatsi banyuranye bamara impungenge abatuye Isi, n’ubwo nta ngero zifatika bagaragaraza z’abantu barwaye cyangwa bagapfa bazize kurya ibya LMO.

Dr Athanase Nduwumuremyi ahamya ko ibihingwa bya LMO byujuje ubuziranenge
Dr Athanase Nduwumuremyi ahamya ko ibihingwa bya LMO byujuje ubuziranenge

Ubusanzwe inkingo zitandukanye ziterwa abantu, urugero nk’iza Covid-19, zose zakozwe hifashishijwe ikoranabuhanga rya LMO, ndetse n’imwe mu miti nk’ikenerwa cyane n’abarwaye diyabete izwi nka ‘insurine’, kandi nta kibazo biteza abantu ahubwo birabarinda.

Cartagena Protocol

Aya ni amasezerano mpuzamahanga agamije kurebera hamwe niba koko haba hari ingaruka za LMO haba ku binyabuzima n’ibidukikije. Ayo masezerano yatangiye gushyirwa mu bikorwa ku ya 29 Mutarama 2000, ubwo ibihugu bigera ku 130 byo hirya no hino ku Isi byayashyiragaho umukono, i Montreal muri Canada. Bivuze ko kuva icyo gihe, igihugu cyiyemeje gukoresha LMO kigomba kubanza kugira ‘Biosafety Law’.

N’ubwo u Rwanda rutarashyiraho itegeko ryemera ibihingwa bya LMO, hashyizweho itsinda rigizwe n’ibigo bitandukanye n’abashakashatsi, ryiga kuri iryo koranabuhanga, n’ubwo nta bigaragara rirakora ngo ritangarize Abanyarwanda, gusa hari ibirimo gukorwa.

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