Ubuvumbuzi bw’ibihugu bwabigize ibihangange: u Bushinwa bushobora guca kuri Amerika

Iterambere isi igezeho muri iki kinyejana cya 21 riraturuka ku buvumbuzi bwagiye bubaho mu bihugu bimwe na bimwe, bukaba ari na bwo bwabigize ibihangange mu gihe cyabyo.

Ubuvumbuzi bwariyongereye kugera no ku byogajuru bishinzwe itumanaho. Ibihugu bibifite birashyirwa mu bihangange by
Ubuvumbuzi bwariyongereye kugera no ku byogajuru bishinzwe itumanaho. Ibihugu bibifite birashyirwa mu bihangange by’isi kuri ubu

Hari iterambere ryavutse kuva mu myaka irenga ibihumbi bitandatu ishize kugeza n’ubu rigikoreshwa, ndetse akaba ari na ryo ryabaye ishingiro ry’ibindi bikorwa byose umuntu agezeho muri iki gihe.

Kubaho kw’isi kugabanyijemo ibihe bibiri by’ingenzi, ari byo "Mbere y’amateka (Préhistoire) akaba ari na mbere y’ivuka rya Yesu Kristu hamwe n’Amateka(Histoire) bihera ku ivuka rya Yesu Kristo kugeza ubu.

Igihe cya mbere y’amateka kigizwe n’ibihe bitatu by’ingenzi byitwa mu gifaransa " Paléolitique (kera cyane), "Néolitique" ndetse na Antiquité (iki kikaba ari igihe gihera "mbere y’amateka" kugera mu gihe cy’Amateka).

Paléolitique ku bazi amateka, ni igihe abantu bari bakibeshejweho no guhiga bakarya inyama z’inyamaswa bakanasoroma imbuto z’ibiti, bagakoresha amabuye batyaje ku yandi mu kwica izo nyamaswa, kandi bahoraga bagendagenda badatuye hamwe.

Mu gihe cya Néolitique cyakurikiyeho, abantu bari bamaze kubona ko imbuto basoroma zitangiye kuba nke, bahitamo gutyaza neza amabuye bayakoramo amasuka n’imihoro batangira guhinga.

Ntabwo bongeye kujya bimuka no kurara mu buvumo aho babonye, ahubwo batangiye guca ibiti n’ibyatsi barubaka baratura, ariko nta terambere rigaragara ryari ryakagerwaho badafite uburyo bashobora guhanahana amakuru no gusiga umurage wakwigisha abo bagenda babyara.

Mu Misiri n’i Babiloni hakomotse inyandiko, amategeko n’imyubakire

Ahagana mu mwaka w’ibihumbi bine (4000) mbere y’ivuka rya Yesu Kristo (B.C), Abanyamisiri(Egypt) bavumbuye uburyo bashobora kubika amakuru no kuvugana hifashishijwe inyandiko zitwaga ‘Hiéroglyphes’, aho bashushanyaga ibintu babona bikaba ari byo bisimbura inyuguti.

Inyandiko za mbere zabayeho zitwaga Hiéroglyphes
Inyandiko za mbere zabayeho zitwaga Hiéroglyphes

Urubuga ‘Histoire pour tous’ rugaragaza ko imyandikire y’inyuguti yazanywe n’abaturage bitwaga “Sumeriens” ahagana mu myaka ya 3300(B.C), hari hashize imyaka hafi 1,000 ‘hieroglyphes’ zo mu Misiri zibayeho.

Twibukiranye ko mu gihe cya mbere y’amateka(mbere y’ivuka rya Yesu) babaraga imyaka bahereye kuri myinshi baza kuri mike, kuko umwaka wa 4000 ari wo wa kera kurusha uwa 3,000.

Aba baturage b’Aba ‘Sumeriens’ bari abacuruzi mu cyitwaga Mesopotamiya ya kera yari ifite umurwa mukuru Babylon(Babiloni), hakaba ari muri Irak y’iki gihe, bateje imbere icyo gice cy’isi kugera mu Misiri kuko ari yo nzira banyuragamo baza kugura ibiribwa.

Inyandiko z’aba ‘Sumeriens’ zatangiye ari amahame y’ubucuruzi abagenga yanditse ku bimeze nk’ibibaho bikozwe mu ibumba, zikaba ari zo umwami wa Mesopotamiya witwaga Hammurabi yashingiyeho mu mwaka wa 1754 ashyiraho amategeko yaje kujya yiganwa hose ku isi kugeza ubu.

Ku isi hari ibihugu bigifite amategeko yo guhanisha umuntu igihano kingana neza n’icyaha yakoze, nk’aho agira ati “Ijisho rihorwe irindi, iryinyo rihorwe irindi”.

Tukivuga kuri Misiri na Mesopotamiya, ntitwasiga inyubako za mbere zabayeho ku isi ziri ku rwego rutangaza abantu kugeza n’uyu munsi. Izi ni umunara w’i Babeli uvugwa muri Bibiliya (mu gitabo cy’Itangiriro ibice 11:9) wari wubatswe i Babuloni.

Ahagana mu mwaka wa 2,649 ahitwa i Mamphis mu gihugu cya Misiri, nibwo abahanga mu bwubatsi bahashyize inyubako zitangaje zitwa ‘Pyramids’(zakoreshwaga nk’imva z’abami b’icyo gihe bitwaga ba Farawo).

Mu Bugereki hakomotse ubumenyi n’ubuhanga, ubwubatsi, Demokarasi, imikino ya Olympiques,…

Imyaka yarahise indi irataha, isi igera ahagana mu myaka ya 800 mbere y’ivuka rya Yezu Kristu, igihugu cy’u Bugereki kibyara abahanga, abarwanyi, abanyapolitike, abubatsi, abakinnyi b’umupira,... ku buryo byaje kukigira igihangange gitegeka isi muri icyo gihe kugera mu myaka ya 200(B.C).

Abagereki ni bo bashyizeho igenamajwi ry’inyuguti zikoreshwa henshi ku isi, guhera kuri A-Z, mu cyo bita Alphabet phonetique(yari igizwe n’inyuguti 20).

Imikorere y’ibintu bitandukanye nko kugenda kw’imodoka, kuguruka kw’indege n’ibyogajuru, kugenda hejuru y’amazi kw’amato, amamashini akora mu nganda, mu bwubatsi, mu buvuzi, byose isi irabikesha amahame yashyizweho n’abahanga b’Abagereki bo mu kinyagihumbi cya mbere, mbere y’ivuka rya Yesu Kristu.

Aba ni nka Aristippe, Anaxagore, Anaximène, Aristote, Antithène, Démocrite, Diogène Le Cynique, Épicure, Héraclite, Isocrate, Leucippe, Parménide, Platon, Pyrrhon, Pythagore, Socrate, Thalès na Xénocrate, bashyizeho amahame atandukanye n’ubuhanga bigenga indimi z’abantu, imibare, ubugenge, ubutabire, ibinyabuzima, ubumenyi bw’isi n’ibindi.

Ubumenyi bw’ibintu bitandukanye bw’Abagereki bwatumye batera imbere mu byiciro bitandukanye by’imibereho y’abantu, uhereye ku mitegekere ishingiye kuri demokarasi.

Abaturage bo muri Athènes mu Bugereki bashyizeho amatora y’abayobozi, uwatsinze ku bwiganze bwa benshi akaba ari we uba umukuru wabo, ndetse bakaba ngo nta cyemezo cyafatwaga n’inzego z’ubuyobozi kitavuye ku bushake bwa benshi mu baturage.

Mu Bugereki kandi hakomoka ubuhanga mu myubakire kuko ari bo batekereje kubaka sitade zakira imikino itandukanye zitwaga ‘Amphithéâtres’, aha hakinirwaga imikino itandukanye kuri ubu yitwa ‘Jeux Olympiques’(harimo gusiganwa, umupira w’amaguru n’indi).

Amphithéâtres: sitade zitangaje zubatswe n
Amphithéâtres: sitade zitangaje zubatswe n’Abagereki mu myaka ya 500 mbere y’ivuka rya Yesu Kristu

Abagereki ariko baje kuganzwa n’imbaraga z’ubwami bwa Roma bwatangiye kwaguka kuva mu mwaka wa 229 mbere y’ivuka rya Yesu kugera muri 476 nyuma y’ivuka rya Yesu.

Roma ifatwa nk’igicumbi cy’imico itandukanye, ibikorwaremezo, n’iterambere ry’ifaranga

Mu mwaka wa 27 mbere y’ivuka rya Yesu, Roma yategetswe n’umwami w’abami witwaga Auguste, akaba ari nabwo icyo gihugu cyagutse kigahera mu Bwongereza(i Burayi), kikanyura no muri Afurika y’amajyaruguru kugera mu Buhinde bw’iki gihe( ku mugabane wa Aziya).

Roma yari ifite abaturage b’imico itandukanye bitewe n’uko igihugu cyari kinini cyane, bakaba barateje imbere imikoreshereze y’ifaranga ku buryo ubucuruzi bwo kugurana ibintu butongeye kubaho.

Via Apia, umuhanda utangaje wa mbere Roma yubatse muri 27 mbere y
Via Apia, umuhanda utangaje wa mbere Roma yubatse muri 27 mbere y’ivuka rya Yezu

Roma kandi izwiho kugira ibikorwaremezo byari bihambaye cyane birimo imihanda y’amabuye aconze neza kandi igororotse, iri ku rwego rwa kaburimbo y’iki gihe, ikaba yarafashaga amafarashi kwihutisha inyandiko zijya hose no korohereza abantu n’ibintu kwihuta.

Abaturage ba Roma bashoboye kubaka imiyoboro y’amazi inyura hejuru y’inkuta, iyavana ku isoko ruguru kugera mu mujyi rwagati, bayambukije imisozi n’ibibaya.

Aquaduc za Roma ni kimwe mu bikorwa remezo byafashaga kuvana amazi kure akagezwa mu mijyi. Imihanda na yo yagenderaga ku nkuta ziteye zityo mu rwego rwo kwirinda guterera cyangwa kumanuka umusozi
Aquaduc za Roma ni kimwe mu bikorwa remezo byafashaga kuvana amazi kure akagezwa mu mijyi. Imihanda na yo yagenderaga ku nkuta ziteye zityo mu rwego rwo kwirinda guterera cyangwa kumanuka umusozi

Iyo miyoboro ndetse n’imihanda byabaga bigororotse ku buryo iyo byagonganaga n’umusozi bahitaga bawutobora, byagera hejuru y’ikibaya bagakora ibishoboka byose bya bikuta bikubakirwa inkingi ndende zigera ku mutambiko wabyo mu kirere.

Ubuhangange bwa Kiliziya Gatolika ku isi

Abami ba Roma batotezaga abakirisitu bigeze aho barabemera, ndetse n’umwami w’abami Constantin yaje guca iteka ari ahitwa Milan (Edit de Milan) muri 312 nyuma y’ivuka rya Yesu Kristo, yemera ko ubwami bwe bushingira ku bukirisitu.

I Roma hahise hubakwa Kiliziya itegeka izindi ku isi(Basilique Saint Pierre), ihabwa umukuru wayo mu bwami bwose no ku isi muri rusange yitwa Papa.

Kiliziya yaje kuba igihangange ku isi ibikesheje intambara yarwanye n’Abayisilamu kuva mu kinyejana cya cyenda (nyuma ya Yesu Kristu) kugera mu kinyejana cya 12, ingabo za Papa zikaba zarahagurukaga i Roma ziri ku mafarashi, mu minsi mike zikaba ziteye muri Aziya y’Abayisilamu.

Umwami wa Roma Constantin, wabaye imbarutso yo gukomera kwa Kiliziya Gatolika ku isi
Umwami wa Roma Constantin, wabaye imbarutso yo gukomera kwa Kiliziya Gatolika ku isi

Imibereho y’isi yaje guhindura isura ku buryo bugaragara ahagana mu kinyejana cya 15, biturutse ku buvumbuzi bw’umugabane wa Amerika, ndetse n’impinduramatwara mu mitegekereye yayo (Revolutions) muri Amerika no mu Bufaransa mu kinyejana cya 18.

Amerika n’u Bufaransa: Abategetsi b’isi

Impinduramatwara yabaye mu Bufaransa kuva mu mwaka wa 1789 kugera mu 1792, ni yo nkomoko y’ubutegetsi butatu bugenderwaho mu bihugu hafi ya byose by’isi: Inteko Ishinga amategeko, Ubutegetsi nyubahirizategeko hamwe n’Ubucamanza.

Ibi byagize u Bufaransa igihugu cy’igihangange ku isi cyane cyane mu gihe cy’umurwanyi witwaga Napoleon Bonaparte, ndetse na nyuma yaho icyo gihugu cyakwirakwije iyo mitegekere mu bihugu byose cyakoronije.

Ni mu gihe impinduramatwara yabaye muri Amerika mbere yaho gato kuva mu mwaka wa 1865-1783, na yo yigishije abatuye isi ibijyanye n’uburenganzira bwa muntu, akaba ari na ho Abanyafurika bakomora intambara zo kwigobotora ubukoloni.

Izi mpinduramatwara zo muri Amerika no mu Bufaransa ni zo zabyaye amahame yatumye ibyo bihugu biba ibihangange ku isi nyuma y’intambara ya kabiri y’isi.

Umutungo n’ubumenyi bikomeje kuba impamvu y’ubuhangange ku isi

Kuva mu kinyejana cya 18 ubwo havumburwaga imashini zikoresha ingufu z’amashanyarazi, abantu baruhutse gukoresha amaboko n’amaguru, kandi izo mashini zikabafasha gutanga umusaruro mwinshi, batangira no kugenda ku isi, hejuru no hanze yayo mu buryo bworoshye kandi bwihuse.

Ibihugu by’ibihangange ku isi kuri ubu ni ibifite ikoranabuhanga rikora kandi rigakoresha imashini n’ibikoresho bitandukanye byo ku rwego rukomeye nk’imodoka, gari ya moshi, indege, ibyogajuru, ibisasu bya kirimbuzi, ibikoresho by’itumanaho nka satelite, ndetse n’abahanga benshi bashoboye kubikoresha.

Kuri ubu ibihugu icyenda ku isi bifite intwaro za kirimbuzi ni Leta zunze ubumwe za Amerika(USA), u Burusiya, u Bwongereza, u Bushinwa, u Buhinde, Pakistan, Isirayeli, u Bufaransa na Koreya ya Ruguru.

Ibihugu byohereza ibyogajuru mu kirere muri uru rutonde turangije kuvuga haravamo Pakistan, mu bicukura peterori haravamo Koreya ya Ruguru, Isirayeli na Pakistan.

Mu byongereye abaherwe n’abashoramari babikoreramo nibura kuva mu mwaka wa 2010 kugera ubu (nk’uko "Forbes Magazine" ibigaragaza), u Bushinwa bwungutse abagera kuri 325, USA 210, u Buhinde 53, u Burusiya 38.

"Machine a vapeur", imbarutso y
"Machine a vapeur", imbarutso y’iterambere ry’inganda isi igezeho kuri ubu

Mu bijyanye no kugira abaturage benshi bajijutse(bazi byibura gusoma no kwandika) mu rutonde twahereyeho haravamo Iran ifite abangana na 86% mu gihe ibindi bihugu birenza abaturage 95%.

Ni ikihe gihugu gihabwa amahirwe yo kunyura kuri USA?

N’ubwo Leta zunze ubumwe za Amerika(USA) ari cyo gihugu gihiga ibindi ku isi mu buhangange, impuguke mu bijyanye n’ubukungu zivuga ko hashobora kuboneka igihugu kizicaho, cyane ko abafite amafaranga benshi muri iki gihe barimo kwirukira u Bushinwa.

Umwalimu muri Kaminuza y’u Rwanda, Prof Musahara Herman agira ati “Iyo urebye mu bihugu biri kuvuduka(kuzamuka vuba mu iterambere), u Bushinwa rwose bumereye nabi Amerika(USA) haba mu gukomera kw’ifaranga ryabwo ndetse no gucuruza byinshi”.

Ati “N’ubwo abantu bavuga ko mu Bushinwa imbere hakiri abakene, ariko barasimbutse cyane muri iyi myaka kurusha Amerika(USA)”.

Prof Musahara avuga ko Afurika na yo nibigiramo ubushake ndetse n’ibihugu biyigize bikarusho gushyira hamwe, ishobora kuzaba igihangange mu myaka nka 50 iri imbere.

Ibi abishingira ku kuba uyu mugabane ari wo ufite abaturage benshi bakiri bato, ndetse unafite umutungo kamere mwinshi utarakoreshwa ugereranyije n’ahandi ku isi.

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Ibitekerezo   ( 2 )

Ikibazo nuko Ubuvumbuzi bw’ibihugu burimo guteza isi akaga,kuberako mu byo bavumbura harimo Ibitwaro bya kirimbuzi bikomeye kurusha ibya kera (Hypersonic Missiles).Muribuka ibitwaro biteye ubwoba Russia na China baherutse kwereka isi yose ibindi bihugu bidafite (Hypersonic Missiles).Senior Geostrategists and Military Generals,barimo Dr William PERRY wahoze ari Minister of Defense wa America, bahamya ko nta kabuza ibi byose bitujyana ku ntambara ya 3 y’isi,ubwo noneho bazarwanisha atomic bombs isi yose igashira.Le 15/01/2020,President PUTIN wa Russia,yabwiye Parliament yuko niba nta gikozwe mu maguru mashya ngo ibihugu bifite ibitwaro bya kirimbuzi bireke guhangana,Intambara ya 3 y’isi iri hafi.Nyuma yaho gato,le 27/05/2020,president wa China,XI Jinping,nawe yabwiye National Congress yuko abasirikare barimo kwitegura intambara.Gusa icyo batazi nuko Imana irimo kubacungira hafi.Ntabwo yakwemera ko batwika isi yiremeye.Nkuko bible ivuga muli Zabuli 5:6,Imana yanga abantu bose bamena amaraso.Aho kugirango batwike isi yiremeye,Imana izabatanga itwike biriya bitwaro,ikure intambara mu isi hose nkuko Zaburi 46,umurongo wa 9 havuga.Imana izakura mu isi abantu bose bakora ibyo itubuza, harimo n’abarwana nkuko Matayo 26,umurongo wa 52 havuga.Ibyo bizaba ku munsi bible yita armageddon ushobora kuba utari kure,iyo urebye ubushyamirane bw’ibihugu bifite atomic bombs muli iki gihe.

sezikeye yanditse ku itariki ya: 28-06-2020  →  Musubize

Watangiye neza rwose utubwira ingingo kuyindi ariko usoje nabi uri kubwiririza ivanjiri irimo iterabwoba, Kuki Imna itabihagarika niba idukunda? Ikazarindira ko tumarana ikabona gutabara ikiremwa yiremeye, ibyo bintu bya bible ntakuri kubibamo,nubundi numupango wa bagashakabuhake

[email protected] yanditse ku itariki ya: 28-06-2020  →  Musubize

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