U Buyapani na Koreya y’Epfo: Bahangayikishijwe no kuba hatarimo kuvuka abana benshi

Mu gihe mu bihugu byinshi byo ku mugabane wa Afurika, harimo n’u Rwanda, hakomeje kuvugwa ikibazo cy’ubwiyongere bukabije bw’abaturage ndetse n’umubare munini w’abana bavuka ku mugore umwe, ahandi ku isi, cyane cyane mu bihugu by’u Buyapani na Koreya y’Epfo, bafite ikibazo cyo kuba hatari kuvuka umubare uhagije w’abana.

Mu Buyapani, imibare ya Banki y
Mu Buyapani, imibare ya Banki y’Isi n’Umuryango w’Abibumbye igaragaza ko abaturage bakomeje kugabanuka

Ibi birimo kugira ingaruka zitandukanye zirimo kuba umubare w’abatuye igihugu urimo kugabanuka, umubare w’abasaza ukaruta uw’urubyiruko, byose bikagira ingaruka ku bukungu bw’igihugu.

Mu gihugu cya Koreya y’Amajyepfo, Guverinoma y’icyo gihugu yatangaje ko umubare w’abana umugore ashobora kubyara wongeye kugabanuka mu mwaka ushize wa 2018, ugereranyije n’umwaka wa 2017. Kuri ubu umugore w’aho muri Koreya y’Amajyepfo ashobora kubyara abana 0.98, mu gihe muri 2017, uyu mubare wari uri kuri 1.05.

Icyegeranyo cya guverinoma ya Koreya y’Epfo cyerekana ko ikibazo cyo kutabyara kirimo kwiyongera cyane mu bakobwa barimo kwegera imyaka ya za 30.

Kuri ubu igihugu cya Koreya y’Amajyepfo kiza ku mwanya wa mbere ku isi mu kugira abagore batabyara. Ni mu gihe mu bindi bihugu nka Niger umugore ashobora kubyara abana 7.1; naho mu Rwanda, imibare iherutse gushyirwa ahagaragara n’ikigo cy’igihugu cy’ibarurishamibare (NISR) yerekana ko umunyarwandakazi abyara abana bagera kuri 4.2.

Kuba abaturage ba Koreya batarimo kubyara biri kugira ingaruka zitandukanye zirimo no kuba umubare w’abaturage utarimo kwiyongera, ndetse abasaza bakarushaho kwiyongera, mu gihe umubare w’urubyiruko ukiri hasi.

Kuri ubu aho muri koreya, 13.6% by’abatuye igihugu bari hejuru y’imyaka 65, uyu mubare ukaba uruta uw’abana bari hagati y’imyaka 0 na 14.

Ikibazo cy’abaturage batiyongera gihangayikishije abayobozi

Ikibazo cy’uburumbuke bw’abaturage ba Koreya y’Epfo gihangayikishije abayobozi b’icyo gihugu ku buryo batangiye gushyiraho uburyo bworohereza abaturage kubyara. Zimwe mu ngamba icyo gihugu cyashyizeho harimo kugabanya amasaha abakozi bamara mu kazi kugira ngo babone umwanya wa gusabana. Amasaha y’akazi akaba yaravuye kuri kuri 68 mu cyumweru, agera kuri 52.

Iki gihugu gifite kandi ikibazo cyo kuba abasore n’inkumi bahitamo kudashaka. Ubushakashatsi bwakozwe muri 2018 n’ikigo cya Koreya cyita ku buzima n’imibereho myiza, bwerekana ko igice kinini cy’abanyakoreya bari hagati y’imyaka 20 na 44 bakiri ingaragu.

51% by’abagabo na 64% bari muri iki kigero bavuga ko bahisemo kwiberaho ubuzima bwa kigaragu. Bavuga ko bahisemo ubu buzima kubera ko badafite umwanya, amafaranga cyangwa se ibyiyumviro byo kuba bajya gushaka umuntu bakundana. Ibi byose ngo bijyana no kuba kubona akazi muri icyo gihugu bigoranye, ku buryo abenshi bahitamo gushyira umwanya muto babona mu kwihugura no kubona impamyabumenyi nshya, kugira ngo badatakaza akazi kabo.

Iki kibazo kikaba kigeze ahakomeye ku buryo mu mashuri batangiye gushyiraho amasomo yihariye yigisha abanyeshuri uburyo bwo kureshya umukobwa (gutereta), gukundana, ndetse n’ibijyanye n’imibonano mpuzabitsina, nk’uko inkuru dukesha urubuga rwa CNN ibivuga.

Ikibazo nk’iki ntabwo kiri muri Koreya y’Amajyepfo gusa, kuko u Buyapani nabwo bumaze imyaka myinshi bufite ikibazo cy’umubare w’abaturage wabo urimo kugabanuka. Ubushakashatsi bwerekana ko umubare w’abatuye mu Buyapani uzava kuri miliyoni 127, bakagera kuri miliyoni 88 mu mwaka wa 2065.

Imibare ya Minisiteri y’Ubuzima yerekana ko mu mwaka wa 2017, aha mu Buyapani havutse abana 950.000, mu gihe hapfuye abantu miliyoni 1 n’ibihumbi 300.

Mu Buyapani naho batangiye gushyiraho gahunda zifasha abaturage baho kubyara abana benshi. Urugero ni umujyi umwe witwa Nagi, aho ababyeyi bahemberwa kubyara abana barenze umwe. Imiryango ituye muri uyu mujyi ishobora guhabwa amadolari agera ku 3518, iyo babyaye umwana wa kane.

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