Telefone zitaraza byari bimeze bite?

Umukozi muri Sositeye y’Itumanaho MTN-Rwanda ushinzwe guhanahana amakuru n’ibindi bigo, Alain Numa, aribuka ibyabaye ku nshuti ye yavuye i Kigali ijya gusura iwabo i Nyamasheke. Uwo munsi na bo bari bahagurutse i Nyamasheke baza kumusura i Kigali.

Ubwoko butandukanye bwa za telefone abantu bagiye batunga igihe zari zicyaduka mu Rwanda
Ubwoko butandukanye bwa za telefone abantu bagiye batunga igihe zari zicyaduka mu Rwanda

Numa yagize ati "Imodoka zishobora kuba zarabisikaniye nko muri Nyungwe nta wamenya, hahhhh,...uwo muntu w’inshuti yanjye yagezeyo abaturanyi bamubwira ko iwabo na bo bazindutse baza i Kigali kumusura,...ubuzima bwa mbere ya telefone bwarimo wasi wasi nyinshi cyane".

Uruhare rw’impayamaguru n’abafite amajwi aranguruye

Umusaza w’imyaka 82 utuye mu Karere ka Burera, Philippe Furere ujijukiwe n’amateka y’isi avuga ko kuva kera imodoka, indege na telefone bitari byabaho, itumanaho ryakorwaga n’abitwa impayamaguru hamwe n’abantu bafite amajwi aranguruye.

Umusaza Furere avuga ko mu mateka y’ubwami (Abanyaburayi cyane cyane) bagiraga abitwa ’pioneers’ bashinzwe gutwara ubutumwa buva cyangwa bujya ahantu hatandukanye ku isi, ariko babaga bagiye no kwigira abo bami imiterere y’ibice bitandukanye by’isi.

Ishusho y
Ishusho y’impayamaguru (messengers)mu bwami bwa Roma

Furere avuga ko muri rusange umwami yabaga afite intumwa "messengers" zigiye ziri ku misozi itandukanye ku ntera iringaniye umuntu abasha kwiruka, zagendaga zihererekanya ubutumwa bukagera iyo bujya budahagaze mu nzira.

Aba bantu bitwaga ’impayamaguru’, si ko bose bakoreshaga uburyo bwo kwiruka n’amaguru mu bihugu byose, kuko mu bwami bwa Roma babaga bifashisha amafarashi yiruka cyane.

Impamvu yo gukoresha ’impayamaguru’ ni uko zabaga zitwaye ubutumwa bw’ibanga ibwami badashaka ko bujya ku karubanda, ariko iyo byabaga ari amakuru asanzwe hifashishwaga abantu bafite amajwi aranguruye.

Furere yagize ati "ari nk’umuntu wapfuye bashakaga umuntu uhagarara ku gasozi ahirengeye akabwira abandi bari ku tundi dusozi, nabo bagahagarara ahirengeye bakabwira abandi bo ku dusozi two hirya yaho, gutyo gutyo".

Ibitabo by’amateka y’u Rwanda bikomeza bigaragaza ko hari n’aho bakoreshaga ingoma, zikagira imurishyo itandukanye bitewe n’icyo i bwami bashaka kubwira abaturage.

Nk’urugero, umurishyo w’ingoma y’impuruza ihururiza abaturage kwitabira urugamba wabaga utandukanye n’umurishyo w’ingoma ibika itanga ry’umwami(yapfuye), cyangwa uwo kuvuga amacumu y’ingabo zatabarutse ku rugamba.

Uburyo bw’itumanaho bwagiye bworoshywa no kujyana ubutumwa hifashishijwe imodoka zadutse ahagana mu 1770, nyuma mu mwaka 1844 havumburwa imashini za telegaramu zoherezanya ubutumwa bw’ibimenyetso, umuntu yabisoma agakuramo amagambo afite ubusobanuro.

Uretse gutuma impayamaguru, mu kwihutisha gutanga ubutumwa bashaka umuntu ufite ijwiri riranguruye agahagarara ku musozi ahirengeye akamenyesha abantu ibyabaye
Uretse gutuma impayamaguru, mu kwihutisha gutanga ubutumwa bashaka umuntu ufite ijwiri riranguruye agahagarara ku musozi ahirengeye akamenyesha abantu ibyabaye

Nyuma y’imyaka mike mu 1877 uwitwa Alexander Graham Bell yavumbuye telefone ya mbere yo mu biro cyangwa mu rugo ikoresha urutsinga, ariko iyo telefone yakomeje kunganirwa na telegaramu, imodoka n’indege mu kuvana ubutumwa hamwe bujya ahandi.

Iri tumanaho ryose ariko ryakoreshwaga n’umugabo rigasiba undi bitewe n’uko ryifashisha ibikoresho n’uburyo buhenze.

Telefone ya mbere yo mu nzu yavumbuwe mu 1877
Telefone ya mbere yo mu nzu yavumbuwe mu 1877

Igitekerezo cyo gukora telefone zigendanwa cyagizwe bwa mbere n’uruganda rw’Abanyamerika Motorola rukora ibikoreshwa n’amashanyarazi (electronics) mu mwaka wa 1940.

Nyuma yaho mu mwaka wa 1973 uwitwa Martin Cooper wayoboraga ubushakashatsi muri urwo ruganda rwa Motorola yaje kumurika telefone igendanwa ya mbere yitwaga ’Motorola DynaTac 8000 mu mihanda y’i New York muri Amerika.

Motorola DynaTac 8000, telefone ya mbere igendanwa yavumbuwe mu 1973
Motorola DynaTac 8000, telefone ya mbere igendanwa yavumbuwe mu 1973

Icyo gihe abatuye isi muri rusange bari bakomeje gutumanaho hakoreshejwe kugenda n’amaguru cyangwa kohereza intumwa, itumanaho rya telefone (zitwa fixe), iposita no kugenda mu modoka bigaharirwa abifite n’abajijutse.

Umubyeyi witwa Umupfasoni yagize ati "inshuti yanjye twarahuraga tukaganira imbonankubone, naba nshaka ko duhura nkandika urwandiko nkaruha gasaza kanjye kakarwirukankana ubwo na we akaba anyoherereje igisubizo..., ni urwo rujya n’uruza rwabagaho nta bya telefone".

Umwaka wa1998, umwaduko wa telefone zigendanwa mu Rwanda

Mu kwezi kwa Nzeri 1998 nibwo Sosiyete MTN Rwanda Cell yazaga gukorera mu Rwanda, akaba ari bwo Umunyarwanda wa mbere yatunze telefone igendanwa.

Telefone za mbere mu Rwanda zabanje mu bayobozi bakuru b’Igihugu, zigenda zimanuka zigera muri rubanda gake gake uko imyaka igenda ishira.

Alain Numa yakomeje asobanura ko icyo gihe MTN yagurishaga telefone nini zo mu bwoko bwa Nokia zimeze nk’ibibando, ariko nyuma yaho hagiye haza telefone nto zo mu bwoko bwa Alcatel, Motorola, Samsung n’izindi.

Numa yibukije uburyo guhamagara no kwitaba byombi byari bihenze kuko umuntu yaguraga ikarita yo guhamagara y’amafaranga 2,500 ndetse n’iyo kwitaba ya 2,500Frw, kandi zombi zikamara ukwezi kumwe gusa.

Yagize ati "gukoresha ubwo buryo buhenze zari ingamba zigamije gufasha gukwirakwiza vuba vuba iminara(hirya no hino mu gihugu)".

Bitewe no guhenda kwa telefone ubwazo n’ama inite yo guhamagara, haje gukoreshwa telefone za rusange zitwaga ’Tuvugane’, nyuma ziza kwitwa ’Terimbere’.

Ubwo andi masosiyete y’itumanaho ya Tigo na Airtel aba araje, ikiguzi MTN yari yarashyizeho cyo kwitaba kiba gikuweho ndetse n’icyo guhamagara kigenda kigabanyuka kugeza uyu munsi aho umuntu ashobora kugura ’ama inite’ y’amafaranga 100.

Byinshi mu byaranze telefone zigendanwa mu Rwanda wabisanga mu nkuru yacu twakoze muri 2019, ivuga ku ngorane no guhuzagurika kwabayeho ubwo ikoranabuhanga rya telefone ngendanwa ryazaga ritari rimenyerewe.

Mu myaka 20 telefone igendanwa imaze igeze mu Rwanda, ubuzima bwarahindutse ku buryo umumaro wayo warenze guhamagarana no kwandikirana ubutumwa bugufi, ubu telefone ikaba yarabaye ishingiro ry’imibereho ya buri munsi.

Uretse kuba igikoresho cyo gutumanaho no kumenya amakuru y’ibibera hose ku isi, telefone ni banki umuntu abitsaho amafaranga (kuri Mobile/Airtel Money) ndetse ikaba imaze gusimbura inoti n’ibiceri umuntu yitwazaga ajya guhaha no kwishyura ibintu na serivisi zitandukanye.

Numa wo muri MTN yakomeje agira ati "Telefone yarinze benshi ingendo zabavunaga kuko umuntu ufite inka muri Nyabihu bitakiri ngombwa guhora ajya kuzireba azishyiriye imiti, ndetse abantu kuri ubu ntibikiri ngombwa ko bakorana inama bari kumwe".

Kubeshya no kubura urukundo, bimwe mu bibi byiyongereye kubera telefone

Ushobora kuba uri mu modoka ukumva uwo muri kumwe arahamagaye kuri telefone ati "Ngeze i Nyabugogo" nyamara iyo modoka arimo iri mu mujyi wa Muhanga.

Muri iki gihe smartphones hari abatazishira amakenga bakavuga ko n
Muri iki gihe smartphones hari abatazishira amakenga bakavuga ko n’ubwo zazanye iterambere zigenda zigabanya urukundo no gushyikirana hagati y’abantu

Uretse ibinyoma, kurangaza abantu rimwe rimwe zibatoza imico mibi, telefone ngo zatumye urukundo mu bantu rutakibaho nk’uko twabisobanuriwe n’umubyeyi witwa Musabyemaliya Jacqueline utuye i Kigali.

Yagize ati "Kera umuntu yakumburaga undi akajya kumusura, none ubu iyo amuhamagaye akabona ifoto ye kuri whatsapp, biba birangiye".

Musabyemaliya avuga ko uko telefone zazanye iterambere no kujijuka mu bantu, ari nako zazanye ibibi bituma benshi batakaza ubumuntu.

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Ibitekerezo   ( 6 )

Musobanure neza ku bijyanye n’igihe imodoka nk’izi zifite moteurs cyangwa indege byavumburiwe. Ikindi umuntu yasobanura kurushaho ni uko koko telephone mobile yageze mu Rwanda ya mtn ari mu mwaka wa 1998, ariko na mbere yaho mu Rwanda hari abifite bari bafite telephone zigendanwa zikoreshwa na satellite. Erega ibijyanye n’ibinyabiziga cg ibikoresho by’ikoranabuhanga harimo n’iby’itumanaho, iyo bivumbuwe birihuta kugira ngo bikwire ahantu henshi. Murakoze.

Vedadte yanditse ku itariki ya: 4-01-2021  →  Musubize

Munyibukije telephone yanjye umusirikare yanyibye. Abonnement 2500 yo kwitaba ku kwezi na Andi yo guhamagara. Itumanaho hafi yacu turikoreshe neza.

PHILBERT yanditse ku itariki ya: 4-01-2021  →  Musubize

Munyibukije telephone yanjye umusirikare yanyibye. Abonnement 2500 yo kwitaba ku kwezi na Andi yo guhamagara. Itumanaho hafi yacu turikoreshe neza.

PHILBERT yanditse ku itariki ya: 4-01-2021  →  Musubize

Ahubwo ifatabuguzi y,ukwezi yari 10.000 kwitaba gusa.Carte yo guhamagara ya 2500 wahamagaraga abantu bane akaba arashize kandi agatoki kari hafi ya stop😄

Rutikanga Edouard yanditse ku itariki ya: 4-01-2021  →  Musubize

Ahubwo ifatabuguzi y,ukwezi yari 10.000 kwitaba gusa.Carte yo guhamagara ya 2500 wahamagaraga abantu bane akaba arashize kandi agatoki kari hafi ya stop😄

Rutikanga Edouard yanditse ku itariki ya: 4-01-2021  →  Musubize

Ahubwo ifatabuguzi y,ukwezi yari 10.000 kwitaba gusa.Carte yo guhamagara ya 2500 wahamagaraga abantu bane akaba arashize kandi agatoki kari hafi ya stop😄

Rutikanga Edouard yanditse ku itariki ya: 4-01-2021  →  Musubize

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