Dore amateka ya murandasi(Internet) kuva kuri 1G-5G n’aho u Rwanda rugeze

Murandasi (Internet) yatangiye hagati mu myaka ya 1960-1970, ubwo ibyogajuru (satellites) byari bitangiye koherezwa mu kirere(mu isanzure), hagamijwe gufasha abasirikare kuvugana bakoresheje itumanaho rigendanwa(mobile telecommunication).

Umuyobozi w’ishami ry’Urwego Ngenzuramikorere (RURA) rishinzwe Ikoranabuhanga, Charles Gahungu, avuga ko uko kuvugana kwatangiriye mu gisirikare cy’Abanyamerika, ariko nyuma y’imyaka mike kwaje gusakara no mu baturage basanzwe b’abasivili.

Icyo gihe hakoreshwaga telefone nini za Motorola zabaga zifite antenne, abantu bakavugana hagenda amajwi gusa, ari na cyo cyiciro cya mbere cya murandasi cyitwa 1G(generation).

Gahungu avuga ko icyo gihe amajwi yagendaga acikagurika ku buryo abavugana batumvikanaga neza kugeza ahagana mu 1990, ubwo haje icyiciro cya kabiri(2G) cy’amajwi avuguruye yumvikana neza, ndetse abantu batangira no kwandikirana ubutumwa bugufi.

Hashize imyaka mike Internet ya 2G ivugururwa hashakwa uko amakuru ahererekanywa yagenda ari menshi mu buryo bw’inyandiko n’amajwi, ari bwo haje icyiciro cya 2.75G cyo kohererezanya amajwi, inyandiko(text nini hakoreshejwe email) ndetse n’amafoto mato.

Mu cyiciro cya gatatu(3G) havuguruwe uburyo bwo kohereza amakuru menshi cyane kurushaho mu buryo bw’amajwi, inyandiko, amafoto n’amashusho, kandi bikagenda cyangwa bigafunguka hashize igihe gito, ku muvuduko urushijeho kuba munini urengeje kilobytes 400 ku isegonda(kbps).

Internet ivuguruye ya 3.5G ndetse no kugera kuri 3.75G yo irushijeho kwihuta gufunguka kw’amakuru arimo guhererekanywa, ku muvuduko ubarirwa muri za megabytes mu isegonda(mbps).

Iki cyiciro gituma abantu bashobora kuvugana barebana cyangwa umuntu agakurikirana imbonankubone ibintu birimo kubera ahandi, n’ubwo biba bigenda gahoro kandi bicikagurika, kuko ngo amakuru aba asakazwa n’ibyogajuru biri kure cyane kandi anyura mu miyoboro mito.

Gahungu avuga ko ibi bigereranywa n’impombo cyangwa amatiyo atwara amazi, kuko ngo iyo abantu bakoresha agatiyo gato ari benshi, babona amazi make, ndetse abenshi bakayabura.

Nk’uko habaho kwagura imiyoboro y’amazi cyangwa kuyongera kugira ngo abantu babone menshi, ni na ko hakenerwa kubaka ibikorwaremezo bya Internet bitwara amakuru menshi ku muvuduko ugenda nk’urumuri.

Gahungu avuga ko Internet ya 4G yihuta gutwara amashusho y’ibibera ahantu hatandukanye ku Isi muri ako kanya, itashobokaga u Rwanda rutarashyira imiyoboro migari ya ’fibre optique’ mu butaka, ari na cyo gikorwa cyatangiranye n’umwaka wa 2008.

Izi ntsinga zitwara Internet ziyihawe n’ibyogajuru, ikamanuka mu kirere yinjira mu minara miremire yahujwe na byo, bakazitaba mu butaka ku buryo zigenda nk’amatiyo atwara amazi, zagezwa n’ahari inyanja ngari bakazitaba hasi mu mazi, zikambuka zigafata no ku yindi migabane.

Fibre optique zimaze kugera mu Rwanda hahise haza Internet ya 4G ’Long Term Evolution (LTE)’, igenda ku muvuduko ubarirwa muri ’Gigabyte imwe’ mu isegonda(gbps), ariko na yo ikarushwa na 5G itaragezwa mu Rwanda, yo ikaba igenda ku muvuduko wa ’gigabytes’ zirenze 10 mu isegonda.

Kugira ngo Internet igere mu gikoresho cy’itumanaho (telefone, mudasobwa, televiziyo, radiyo...) bisaba kugicomeka ku rutsinga ruva ku muyoboro mugari wa fibre optique, rugera mu nzu ituwemo cyangwa ikorerwamo.

Icyakora bitewe n’uko ya telefone cyangwa mudasobwa abantu baba bakeneye kuyigendana, hitabazwa utwuma bita "Router" cyangwa "Switch" dutangwa mu Rwanda n’ibigo nka KtRN, Liquid Terracom, Canal Box n’ibindi.

Utu twuma ducomekwa kuri rwa rutsinga rwa ’fibre optique’ rugarukira mu nzu cyangwa ku munara, tukaba ari two dusakaza Internet kuri telefone na mudasobwa biri muri ibyo bice, igendeye mu mwuka (wireless) aho kuba mu rutsinga.

Gahungu akomeza agira ati "Iyo Internet itarimo kwihuta kandi ukeneye kureba wenda nk’ikibanza cyawe aho giherereye ku ikarita, ureba kuri ’Google Earth’, wajya gufungura bigatindaaa(bikarangira itanafungutse), ariko iyo ari 4G, ukozaho gusa."

Byagera kuri 5G ho bikaba akarusho kuko porogaramu (applications) zayo zikoresha ’Camera’ zibasha kugenzura ibintu byinshi icyarimwe, kandi bigatangira kwikoresha (automation na robotism).

Gahungu atanga urugero ku ruganda runini rwenga ibinyobwa, aho amacupa aba ari ku mirongo myinshi agenda apfundikirwa.

Ubusanzwe abantu ni bo bashyirwa kuri iyo mirongo yose bakagenzura buri cupa, ku buryo iyo ridapfundikiwe neza cyangwa rihangutse, bahita barikuramo bakarishyira ku ruhande.

Gahungu ati "Reba amacupa ari kunyuraho yihuta, ntabwo ari ibintu umuntu yagenzura n’amaso anakoresha amaboko ngo bishoboke! Ibyo ari byo byose hari iriguca mu maso ntunabimenye, mu nganda zikora ibintu bihambaye haba hakoreshwa uburyo bwikora kandi mudasobwa zaho zikoresha Internet ya 5G."

Aha hose haba hakoreshwa ‘camera’ zigereranywa n’amaso y’umubiri w’umuntu, ibyuma bizifite bimwe bigakora nk’amaboko n’amaguru, ibindi byitwa ‘censors’ bigakora nk’ibyumviro mu kumenya urusaku, gukorwaho(toucher),...

Gahungu avuga ko ubu buryo bwitwa ‘robotisme’ ari bwo bukoreshwa mu kugenzurira kuri mudasobwa ibinyabiziga bigera muri za miliyoni mu mihanda itandukanye, hifashishijwe za ’camera’, ku buryo bidasaba ko abapolisi baba bari ahantu hose.

Internet yihuta cyane ya 5G ikaba ari na yo ikoreshwa mu kwerekana muri ako kanya(live), imikino n’ibindi bikorwa birimo kubera hirya no hino ku Isi, kandi bikaza ari amashusho akeye cyane.

Politiki nshya y’u Rwanda y’umwaka wa 2022-2027, igamije guha Abaturarwanda bose Internet yihuse binyuze mu miyoboro migari ya ’fibres optiques’, iteganya ko hazatangwa internet ya 4G, 5G n’ibindi byiciro bizakurikiraho.

Iyi Politiki ubu yemerera ibigo by’Itumanaho bya MTN, Airtel, KtRN Liquid Terracom, BsG n’ibindi, gutangira gucuruza murandasi ya 5G isakazwa n’intsinga za fibre optique n’iminara ubu bigenda bikwirakwizwa hirya no hino mu Gihugu.

Guhinduka kw’imikorere no koroshya ubuzima

Gahungu yibuka ko mu myaka 20 ishize ubwo Ikigo cy’Imisoro n’Amahoro (Rwanda Revenue Authority/RRA) cyari kigikorera ahitwa ku Kinamba, ngo yabonaga imirongo miremire y’abantu birirwa aho bagiye kumenyekanisha imisoro ndetse no gusora.

Kuri ubu umuntu wiryamiye mu cyumba iwe akanda kuri ’application’ ya banki muri telefone ye akishyura ya misoro, ubundi agahita yikomereza kuryama.

Umuyobozi wa rimwe mu mashami ya Banki ya Kigali, Nzabandora Noel, we avuga ko imirongo miremire yari ikigaragara kugeza mu mwaka wa 2018, ubwo ’applications’ zo muri telefone na programu za ’Internet banking’ zari zitaraza.

Nzabandora ati "Ubu ikoranabuhanga kuri telefone rikwereka ko wahembwe, ukaba ushobora guhita wishyura fagitire y’amazi, umuriro, imisoro,...Ushobora no guhita uyakurura ukayashyira kuri Mobile Money, ugahinira hafi ukayabikuza, muri make akazi Banki yajyaga ikora umuntu ni we ubasha kukikorera atavuye aho."

Nzabandora avuga ko imashini za ATM na zo ziri mu byagabanirije imvune abakozi ba za banki, kuko abagombaga kujyayo kubikuza bagana ibyo byuma bifite ikoranabuhanga rya 4G ryikoresha(automation) bikabaha amafaranga.

Ntabwo bikiri ngombwa ko umuturage uhabwa amafaranga na VUP ahaguruka i Kinyamakara ngo ajye mu Mujyi i Huye cyangwa i Nyamagabe kubikuza kuri banki, kuko abakozi b’umurenge SACCO bahita bashyira ayo mafaranga kuri Mobile Money y’uwo muturage.

Nzabandora avuga ko mu myaka yo hambere abantu babitsaga muri banki bikandikwa mu gatabo, umuntu ngo yabaga ashobora kugata, kukamburwa cyangwa kwibwa, ndetse n’abakozi ba Banki ubwabo ngo bashoboraga kunyereza ya mafaranga bakigendera ntibakurikiranwe.

Imiyoboro ya fibre optique ubu igeza murandasi muri mudasobwa z’uturere, imirenge n’utugari, ku buryo umuturage ugannye serivisi z’Irembo gusaba icyemezo, cyangwa akoresheje mudasobwa ye aho yaba aherereye hose ku Isi, ahita akibonera kuri telefone cyangwa mudasobwa imwegereye bitamusabye kujya ku buyobozi aho yagisabiye.

Fibre Optique yatumye Internet ihenduka kandi igera kuri benshi

Gahungu avuga ko mu mwaka wa 2006 ubwo Internet yari igishingiye kuri Satellite n’iminara gusa(fibre optique zitaraza), Leta yaguraga megabyte imwe/isegonda amadolari ya Amerika 2500 ku kwezi, kuri ubu ahwanye n’amafaranga y’u Rwanda miliyoni ebyiri n’ibihumbi 500.

Icyo gihe itumanaho rikoresha ikoranabuhanga ngo ryaharirwaga ubuyobozi bw’inzego zo hejuru gusa, bitewe n’uko nta miyoboro migari ya ’fibre optique’ n’ibyogajuru byari bwasakare henshi ku Isi.

Kuri ubu umuntu umwe abasha kwigurira megabytes 7000 za 3G mu cyumweru kimwe mu bigo bya MTN na Airtel atanze amafaranga 5000Frw gusa, cyangwa GB(Gigabytes) 30 za 4G muri Airtel n’ahandi, aziguze amafaranga ibihumbi 16,000Frw.

Kugeza ubu mu bigo no mu ngo ahenshi mu mijyi hamaze kugezwa intsinga za fibre optique zitanga murandasi ya 4G, aho zitaragera hakaba hifashishwa iminara y’itumanaho yahujwe na fibre optique, ikabasha gusakaza murandasi ku ntera ndende irenga ibirometero bitatu.

Abahanga mu by’ikoranabuhanga bakavuga ko bene iyi Internet ya wireless, iyo ituruka kure cyane iba ishobora kudakora neza kuko haba hari inzitizi mu nzira inyuramo, cyangwa imikorere ituzuye y’ibyuma biyisakaza.

Uwitwa Munyeshyaka uzobereye ibijyanye n’ikoranabuhanga ati “Internet ya wireless ntabwo ishobora kuba 100% wireless, hari aho igera ikanyura mu ntsinga, mu minara no muri routers ziri aho.

Imbogamizi abakoresha murandasi bagifite kugeza ubu

N’ubwo u Rwanda ruvuye kure, hari bamwe mu bakoresha Internet cyane cyane iya 4G inyura mu ntsinga, bavuga ko ihenze kandi yihuta gushira, ku buryo hari ingo zinubira kuba ziyitangaho amafaranga y’u Rwanda ibihumbi 27 ku kwezi, kandi yaba itarashira muri uko kwezi bakayisubiza.

Fibres optiques zifasha gukwirakwiza Inteenet yihuta
Fibres optiques zifasha gukwirakwiza Inteenet yihuta

Munyeshyaka avuga ko nta buryo umuntu "yakugurishaho ibyo kurya muri resitora, akaguha igihe cyo kuba wabimaze, cya gihe cyashira akisubiza ibisigaye byose, ndetse akongera kugusaba kugura ibindi".

Ibi ni amakosa abakiriya b’ibigo by’Itumanaho binubira bavuga ko byagakwiye kuyahanirwa, kuko umuntu waguze Internet ngo atagombye guhabwa igihe agomba kuba yayimaze, ngo nidashira bayisubize.

Abakoresha Internet bamwe bakomeza bavuga ko akenshi babwirwa ko baguze iyihuta, ariko ntibibe nk’uko bari babyiteze.

Umunyamakuru ukorera Televiziyo ya BTN agira ati "Ugura Internet bakubwira ko ari 4G ariko ikagenda nabi, ikarutwa n’iya 3G."

Abakiriya bakoresha Internet bagasaba Ikigo RURA kujya gisuzuma ayo makosa yose, kigatanga ibihembo ku bigo byitwaye neza mu bucuruzi bw’ikoranabuhanga.

Imishinga iteganyijwe

Gahungu wa RURA avuga ko hakiri urugendo runini cyane kugira ngo buri Munyarwanda agerweho na Internet yihuta, binyuze mu miyoboro ya fibre optique n’iminara bigomba gukwirakwizwa hose mu Gihugu.

Avuga ko nk’uko u Rwanda rwahawe imiyoboro ya fibre optique kuva ku nyanja ngari y’u Buhinde, inyuze mu bihugu bya Kenya na Tanzania, na rwo ruzakomeza kuyitanga ku bindi bihugu by’ibituranyi aho itaragera.

Leta y’u Rwanda ku bufatanye n’abikorera, irateganya gukoresha amafaranga asaga Miliyari 200(mu myaka ya 2022-2027) mu bikorwa byo guteza imbere Internet yihuta, izajyana no gufasha abaturage kubona telefone zishoboye kuyikoresha.

Urugendo rwo gukoresha ikoranabuhanga rya Internet rukaba kugeza ubu rukiri rurerure, kuko Abaturarwanda bafite telefone zigezweho cyangwa mudasobwa batarenga 25%.

MENYA UMWANDITSI

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Ibitekerezo   ( 2 )

Nonese ko uyu mukoze ahereye hafi ndetse akabisobanura uko,
Ashobora kutubwira igihe 56mbs,
128mbs,256mbs,512mbs Isdn n’izindi niba so zitarakoreshejwe mw’itumanaho rya Internet explorer?Igisirikare cya USA nticyarikoresheje?
Merci.

Jean Claude yanditse ku itariki ya: 30-12-2022  →  Musubize

Nibyo koko nanjye ndi umu agent wa mtn nkorera mwi centre ya nyabagendwa uhagaze muri ropuwe nkorera mukazu kabanza muzaze munteze imbere iyo ndi muri iyo centre nibwo nkoresha internet nisanzuye najyera murugo ikavaho bityo rero bikambangamira sinzi icyo nakora NGO njye nibonera internet no mucyumba iwanjye Murakoze
NB ibintu byo kugura internet bakayitwara utayikoresheje byo sibyiza bazabikureho doreko ahanini nigituma utayikoresha aruko uba wabuze amarezo murakoze Twishimiye iterambere u Rwanda Rukomeje kujyenda Rujyeraho rurangajwe imbere nintore izirushintamwe President muzehe wacu Dukunda Turamwemera Cyne gahunda ni 2024 Tukabimuhembera

Bihoyiki Emmanuel yanditse ku itariki ya: 30-12-2022  →  Musubize

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