U Rwanda rukomeje kwifatanya n’Isi mu kurengera akayunguruzo k’imirasire y’izuba

Imyaka 35 irashize hatangijwe ingamba zo kurengera no kurwanya iyangirika ry’akayunguruzo k’imirasire y’izuba, ingamba zatangijwe n’isinywa ry’amasezerano ya Montreal yo kurengera ako kayunguruzo yasinywe mu mwaka wa 1987, umwanya wabaye mwiza mu kurengera isi n’abayituye.

Kugabanya imyuka yoherezwa mu kirere icyangiza bizafasha Ozone gusubirana
Kugabanya imyuka yoherezwa mu kirere icyangiza bizafasha Ozone gusubirana

Ibihugu byasinye ayo masezerano byagiye bigabanya ibikorwa byangizaga akayunguruzo k’imirasire y’izuba, birokora ubuzima bw’abantu babarirwa muri miliyoni ebyiri bashoboraga kuba barwara kanseri y’uruhu buri mwaka.

Uretse kurokora ubuzima bw’abantu, umunyamabanga uhoraho muri Minisiteri y’Ibidukikije Patrick Karera avuga ko ingamba zo kurwanya iyangirika ry’akayunguruzo k’imirasire y’izuba zafashije mu kurengera urusobe rw’ibinyabuzima no kurengera umusaruro w’ibikomoka ku buhinzi.

Biteganyijwe ko hagati muri iki kinyejana cya 21 akayunguruzo k’imirasire y’izuba kazongera kumera nk’uko kahoze mu myaka ya 1980 kubera ingamba zashyizweho zo kukabungabunga.

U Rwanda rwasinye amasezerano ya Montreal mu mwaka wa 2003, naho mu Kwakira 2016 rwakira inama ya 28 y’ibihugu byasinye amasezerano ya Montreal, hakorwa amavugurura yakorewe ayo masezerano yiswe Kigali Amendment mu rurimi rw’icyongereza.

Muri Kigali Amendment hagamijwe gusaba ibihugu guca burundu ikoreshwa ry’ibinyabutabire byangiza akayunguruzo k’imirasire y’izuba, hemezwa gutangira gukoresha gaz karemano.

Ikigo cy’igihugu cyo kubungabunga ibidukikije mu Rwanda (REMA) ku bufatanye n’abafatanyabikorwa bacyo mu kurengera ibidukikije, cyakoze ibarura rigamije kureba ibikoresho bikonjesha biri mu Rwanda kugira ngo ibivuye mu ibarura bishingirweho mu gufata ingamba zo kuvana ku isoko ry’u Rwanda gaz zangiza.

Izo gaz zigomba kuvanwa ku isoko, hari izizwi nka ODS (ozone depleting substance) zikubiyemo ibinyabutabire bizwi nka CFC (Chlorofluorocarbons) harimo CHF-R12, HCFC-R22.

Hari HCFC hydrochlorofluorocarbons, cyakora mu bihe biri imbere hari izindi zigomba gukurwa ku isoko harimo HFC nka HFC-R410A, HFC-R407C, HFC-R404A, HFC-R507C ziboneka mu byuma bitanga umwuka uhehereye nka climatiseur na frigo.

Naho gaz zigomba gukoreshwa zitangiza havugwa HC-R600A, HC-R290, CO2-R744, na NH3-R717.

Dr Sekomo Birame Christian umwalimu muri Kaminuza akaba n’umushakashatsi avuga ko ibikoresho bikoresha gaz yangiza akayunguruzo k’imirasire y’izuba iboneka mu byuma bikonjesha n’ibigabanya ubushyuhe, mu nyubako z’ibitaro, amahoteli, frigo zikoreshwa mu ngo z’abantu, ibiro by’ubuyobozi, amabanki, inyubako z’amashuri, amazu y’ubucuruzi, hamwe n’inganda.

Dr Sekomo avuga ko Abanyarwanda bagomba kugira uruhare mu gukumira iyangizwa ry’akayunguruzo k’imirasire y’izuba birinda kugura ibikoresho bikoresha gaz zitemewe ku isoko, akavuga ko abacuruzi bagomba gusobanurirwa gaz zikwiye kuba ku isoko.

Agira ati; “Icyo dusaba abaturage bakora ziriya gaz ni ugushishoza bakareba gaz baguze ko zemewe ku isoko, naho abacuruzi mbere yo kwinjiza gaz mu gihugu bagomba kumenya ko zemewe, tukaba dusaba REMA kwigisha abaturage kumenya gaz zikwiriye, cyane cyane abatekinisiye bakora gaz bagasobanukirwa gaz zikwiye gukoreshwa n’izitagomba gukoreshwa.”

Mu Rwanda habarurwa toni 16.4 za gaz zo mu bwoko bwa HCFC zikoreshwa mu nyubako z’ubucuruzi zingana na Toni 13.64, inyubako z’ubuyobozi zibarirwa toni 1.22, muri hoteli 0.41toni, 0.36 mu nyubako z’uburezi, 0.35Toni zibarizwa mu nyubako z’amabanki, 0.17Toni zikoreshwa mu nganda na 0.23Toni zikoreshwa mu bitaro, izi gaz zikaba zigomba gusimbuzwa.

Ubukashakatsi buvuga ko hari gaz zo mu bwoko bwa CFC zingana n’ibiro 5.7 zigomba gusenywa kuko zidakenewe kuguma ku isoko.

Umuyobozi wungirije muri REMA, Faustin Munyazikwiye, avuga ko mu kugabanya iyo myuka yangiza akayunguruzo k’imirasire y’izuba hashyizweho amategeko atandukanye agaragaza urutonde rw’imyuka yangiza akayunguruzo k’imirasire y’izuba. Ati “Gushyiraho itegeko ntibyari bihagije gusa, ahubwo hanabayeho gushyiraho uburyo bw’imikorere n’imikoranire n’inzego zitandukanye.”

REMA ku bufatanye na Minisiteri y’ibidukikije yashyizeho uburyo bw’ikoranabuhanga buhuriraho abacuruzi batumiza ibyo bikoresho mu mahanga, abashinzwe ibyinjira n’ibisohoka kuri za gasutamo n’abashinzwe ibijyanye n’ubuziranenge.

Mu gihe hatafatwa ingamba zihuse mu kurwanya no guhagarika ibikoresho byohereza imyuka yangiza akayunguruzo k’imirasire y’izuba, iyo myuka yazaba yariyongereye ku rugero rwa 95% mu mwaka wa 2050.

Inkuru nziza nk’uko ubuyobozi bwa REMA bubigaragaza, ni uko gukoresha ibikoresho bikonjesha bitohereza imyuka yangiza akayunguruzo k’imirasire y’izuba bihendutse kuko bishobora gutuma abantu bazigama miliyari hafi ibihumbi bitatu (2.9 trillion) z’amadolari kugeza mu mwaka wa 2050.

Inyungu zo kubungabunga akayunguruzo k’imirasire y’izuba ku Rwanda Juliet Kabera avuga ko zititaweho ibinyabuzima byinshi byahungabana, inyungu ku buzima bw’abaturage, ubuhinzi n’ibindi bikorwa bikenera imirasire ariko bizafasha igihugu kujyana n’ikoranabuhanga rijyanye n’igihe no guhanga imirimo mishya.

Alphonse Dushimimana, umuyobozi w’ikigo ALPHA Air-Conditioning gikora ibyuma bikonjesha avuga ko ibikoresho bikenera gaz zangiza akayunguruzo k’imirasire y’izuba byahagaritswe kuva 2008, cyakora ngo hinjira gaz zikoreshwa mu bikoresho byari bisanzwe nabwo bakibanda kuyohereza mu kirere.

Akayunguruzo k’imirasire y’izuba mu ndimi z’amahanga kazwi nka Ozone kagizwe n’uruhurirane rw’umwuka abantu bahumeka uzwi nka O3, urwo ruhurirane rukaba ruherereye mu birometero hati ya 10 na 40 uvuye ku isi ugana mu kirere. Uru ruhererekane rugira uruhare mu kugabanya ingufu z’imirasire y’izuba igana ku isi ishobora kugira ingaruka ku binyabuzima biri ku isi.

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