Gaz mu Kivu nta kibazo iteje, ariko hakenewe ubugenzuzi buhoraho (Inzobere)

Ubushakashatsi bwongeye kugaragaza ko ubucukuzi kuri Gaz Methane mu kiyaga cya Kivu nta bibazo buri gutera, ariko busaba Leta y’u Rwanda guhoza ijisho ku bikorwa bikorerwa mu kiyaga cya Kivu.

Ange Mugisha, umukozi ushinzwe kugenzura ubudahungabana bw
Ange Mugisha, umukozi ushinzwe kugenzura ubudahungabana bw’ikiyaga cya Kivu

Ni ubushakashatsi bwakozwe n’impuguke n’abarimu muri Kaminuza y’u Rwanda, Congo no mu gihugu cy’u Bubiligi mu binyabuzima biba mu mazi, no bucukuzi bwa Gaz.

Bwakozwe n’impuguke ku bufatanye na Sosiyete ishinzwe ingufu mu Rwanda (REG) mu mushinga wa Lake Kivu Monitoring Project “LKMP” bushingiye ku binyabuzima biba mu mazi, harebwa niba ubucukuzi bwa Gaz Methane mu kiyaga cya Kivu butarabigizeho ingaruka.

Jean Pierre Descy, B. Leporcq, E. Mudakikwa na Epaphrodite Havugimana bavuga ko basanze kugabanuka k’umusaruro w’isambaza n’amafi mu kiyaga cya Kivu ntaho bihuriye n’ubucukuzi bwa Gaz mu kiyaga cya Kivu, ahubwo bikaba byaratewe n’imihindagurikire y’ikirere.

Prof. Jean-Pierre Descy umwarimu muri Kaminuza ya Namur (FUNDP), mu gitabo yise Biological Baseline of Lake Kivu avuga ko bibanze ku musaruro w’isambaza uboneka, bagendeye ku wabonetse kuva mu myaka 2012 n’uboneka 2018 basanga hatarimo itandukaniro rinini.

Hagendewe ku mibare mu mwaka wa 2011 nibwo habonetse umusaruro mwinshi mu mezi y’Ugushyingo n’Ukuboza toni zigera ku ijana ku kwezi, mu gihe mu yandi mezi habonekaga toni ziri hagati ya 60 na 70 ku kwezi.

Prof. Jean-Pierre Descy avuga ko abakorera mu kiyaga cya Kivu bagomba kugendera ku mabwiriza yashyizweho na Leta kugira ngo birinde ingaruka zishobora kuboneka.

Yagize ati “Dukurikije ibyo twabonye nta mpinduka zikomeye twabonye, n’izihari zatewe n’imihindagurikire y’ikirere n’ibikorwa bikorerwa hafi y’ikiyaga cya Kivu ariko turebeye ku birebana n’ubucukuzi bwa Gaz nta mpinduka ziboneka.”

Akomeza avuga ko impinduka zishobora kuboneka mu myaka iri imbere, ariko asaba Leta gukomeza kugenzura ibikorwa bikorerwa mu kiyaga cya Kivu.

Umuyobozi wa Porogaramu yo gukurikirana ubudahungabana bw’ikiyaga cya Kivu (LKMP) witwa Christine Umutoni Augusta avuga ko ubushakashatsi bwagaragaje ko ibinyabuzima bitabangamiwe ariko ko ari ngombwa gukomeza gucungira hafi.

Agira ati “Ni ngombwa ko Gaz Methane icukurwa ariko ni ngombwa ko bitagira icyo bihindura ku binyabuzima biri mu kiyaga, ubushakashatsi bwarebye uruhererekane rw’ibinyabuzima biri mu mazi kugera ku mafi kugira ngo bikomeze bibeho. Abantu batabyitondeye haboneka ingaruka z’uko ibinyabuzima byapfa cyangwa ikiyaga kikazarengerwa n’ibyatsi.”

Ibikorwa byo gucukura Gaz Methane mu Kivu birarimbanyije. Iyi Gaz yitezweho gukemura ikibazo cy
Ibikorwa byo gucukura Gaz Methane mu Kivu birarimbanyije. Iyi Gaz yitezweho gukemura ikibazo cy’ibicanwa (Ifoto: ContourGlobal)

Umwarimu muri Kaminuza y’u Rwanda witwa Dr Simon Rukeratabaro avuga ko bibanze ku kureba ku mirimo yo gucukura Gaz n’uburyo bavoma Gaz bamara kuyiyungurura bagasubiza amazi mu kiyaga niba ayo mazi asubizwamo atagira ingaruka ku binyabuzima biyabamo. Icyakora ibyo ngo biracyakomeza.

Yagize ati “Twahereye ku bushakashatsi bwakozwe mbere y’uko ibikorwa byo gucukura Gaz mu kiyaga bitangira, tureba n’uko ibinyabuzima bihagaze nyuma y’uko ubucukuzi bwatangiye. Tugendeye ku bushakashatsi ntabwo bigaragara ko hari icyahindutse, uburyo ibinyabuzima bibayeho, ingano yabyo ubushakashatsi bwakozwe muri 2008, na 2012 n’ubwakozwe ubu bugaragaza ko nta tandukaniro.”

Akomeza avuga ko barebeye ku mazi avomwamo Gaz iyo amaze kuyungururwa asubizwa mu mazi kugera kuri metero 60 ariko ngo nibasanga byangiza ibinyabuzima birimo bazasaba ko yajyanwa munsi harenzeho.

Dr Rukeratabaro avuga ko abarobyi basabwa kubahiriza amabwiriza bahabwa arimo gukoresha ikiyaga ahemewe n’uburyo bwemewe cyane cyane imitego bakoresha mu kuroba.

Abakoresha ikiyaga mu gukora ingendo basabwa kwirinda kumena amavuta mu mazi ndetse ibyo bagendaho ntibisohore imyotsi.

Naho ku bireba abahinzi bo basabwa gukorera kuri metero 50 zisanzwe zisabwa kugira ngo birinde ko ifumbire n’imiti bakoresha bitajya mu kiyaga kuko byangiza ibinyabuzima.

Atanga urugero rw’urubobi rwiyongera mu kiyaga biturutse ku ifumbire iva ku misozi ikajyanwa n’isuri mu kiyaga cya Kivu.

Abandi barebwa basabwa kubahiriza ubudahungabana bw’ikiyaga cya Kivu ni abafite inganda zicukura mu kiyaga cya Kivu basabwa kubahiriza amategeko agenga abacukura Gaz mu kiyaga cya Kivu.

Dr Rukeratabaro usanzwe akurikirana ubworozi bw’amafi mu mazi, avuga ko ashingiye ku bushakashatsi bwakozwe mu kiyaga cya Kivu basanga umusaruro w’isambaza n’amafi mu kiyaga cya Kivu utaragabanutse.

Agira ati; “Ntitubona ko umusaruro wagabanutse ahubwo icyo tubona ikiyaga na cyo kigira uko kibaho n’imihindagurikire y’ikirere kimwe n’uko abashaka umusaruro biyongereye. Ni yo mpamvu hariho amabwiriza asaba guhagarika kuroba mu gihe runaka kugira ngo amafi n’isambaza bibone umwanya wo kuruhuka no gutera amagi menshi.”

Pascal Masiriya Murungula, umwarimu akaba n’umushakashatsi muri Kaminuza ya Bukavu “ISP Bukavu” avuga ko ibyifuzo bitangwa n’abashakashatsi byajya byubahirizwa n’ibihugu bihuriye ku kiyaga cya Kivu.

Baganiriye ku bucukuzi bwa Gaz Methane mu Kivu no kubungabunga ibinyabuzima biba muri ayo mazi
Baganiriye ku bucukuzi bwa Gaz Methane mu Kivu no kubungabunga ibinyabuzima biba muri ayo mazi

Kwita ku kudahungabana kw’ikiyaga cya Kivu ni ukwirinda impanuka zishobora kuvuka mu gihe imirimo yo gucukura iyi Gaz yagenda nabi hakaba kwangiza ibinyabuzima biri mu kiyaga hamwe na Gaz ikibarizwamo.

Mu kiyaga cya Kivu, amafi n’isambaza bibarizwa ku nkengero z’ikiyaga kugera kuri 60m z’ubujyakuzimu, mu gihe munsi yaho hataba umwuka wa Oxygen “O2” ukenerwa n’ibinyabuzima.

Ikiyaga cya Kivu gifite ubuso bungana na kilometero kare ibihumbi bibiri na magana arindwi (2 700 km2), kikaba ikiyaga gikungahaye ku myuka itandukanye mu ndiba zacyo ariko iyamenyekanye ni Gaz Methane ingana na 60km³ ikorwamo amashanyarazi, gutwara imodoka, gutekesha no gukoresha mu buhinzi n’ubuvuzi, indi gaz ibonekamo cyane ni CO2 ingana na 300km³.

Ibikorwa byo kuvoma Gaz Methane mu kiyaga cya Kivu ni inyungu ku bihugu bikikije ikiyaga cya Kivu kubera ibikorwamo iyi myuka, ariko ni no mu rwego rwo kwirinda ko iyi myuka yazaturika ikaba yateza impanuka nk’uko byagenze muri Cameroun tariki ya 21 Kanama 1986 mu kiyaga cya Nyos ubwo iyi myuka yatombotse igahitana abantu 1746 n’inyamaswa 3500.

MENYA UMWANDITSI

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