Umuco na siyansi byemera ko ‘inyatsi’ ibaho kandi yavurwa

Mu gihe umuco uvuga ko inyatsi ari ukubura umugisha w’amahirwe bigatuma umuntu atagira icyo ageraho, siyansi yo ivuga ko ari nk’indwara cyangwa imyitwarire idasanzwe iba ibura gato ngo ihinduke indwara ziba mu gice cy’ibyitwa ‘kuba imbata y’ikintu, imyitwarire, cyangwa se imikino.

Bamwe bagerageza gutunga ifaranga bikanga bikarangira bavuze ko ari imivumo y'inyatsi
Bamwe bagerageza gutunga ifaranga bikanga bikarangira bavuze ko ari imivumo y’inyatsi

Ijambo ‘inyatsi’ rikoreshwa ku muntu utagira icyo ageraho, kandi yizirika umukanda, akanakorana umwete, yewe ntanasesagure, ariko bikanga burundu ntatunganirwe. Ni bwo bagira bati naka afite inyatsi.

Abenshi mu bemera ko inyatsi zibaho, banizera ko zinavurwa zigakira mu buryo bw’umwuka (spiritual), ariko hakaba n’abahakana ko zibaho ndetse bakanavuga ko ari ari ukutamenya uburyo bwo gukoresha no guteza imbere umutungo cyangwa se kugira ingeso yo gupfusha ubusa.

Kigali today yagerageje guhuza imyumvire y’abantu bandukanye bavuga ku nyatsi, bityo ishaka kumva icyo umuco nyarwanda ubivugaho, ndetse no mu mbonezamitekerereze (psychology) bagira ibyo batangaza.

Muganga Rutangarwamaboko, inzobere mu by’umuco n’ amateka akaba n’umuyobozi mukuru w’ikigo nyarwanda cy’ubuzima bushingiye ku muco, yasobanuriye kigali today ibyerekeye inyatsi mu muco nyarwanda, uko zafatwaga, ndetse nuko zavurwaga.

Ati “Inyatsi bwa mbere tubirebeye mu nkomoko y’ijambo, biva ku nshinga y’Ikinyarwanda ‘kwaka’ byo kwambura umuntu ikintu. Bikavuga rero ko inyatsi ari icyamburira umuntu kikamubuza kugira icyo agira cyangwa icyo ageraho cyangwa yagira n’icyo ageraho ntaremye, akagira ubugiri (kugira/gutunga) ariko ntagire ubugwiza (kugwiza/gutunganirwa).”

Akomeza agira ati “Bwa kabiri inyatsi nka Nyirizina yayo ni ukubura umugisha n’amahirwe bituma ntacyo umuntu ageraho cyangwa ngo agitunge atunganirwe kandi mu busanzwe ataya (kwaya), yewe ugasanga anizirika umukanda ariko bikanga akandagara. Ugasanga umuntu arakora rwose agira umwete ariko bikaba iby’ubusa ngo wa mwete we umukize nk’abandi bakora cyane bagakira.”

Muganga Rutangarwamaboko asobanura ko “Inyatsi itera kutaremya. Ufite ibimwamburira wese akenshi usanga ashobora kugira icyakiro, akagira amaboko yakira ariko ataremya, atabasha gushingishwa intege ngo agirirwe umugisha n’ibyo yakira cyangwa ibyo ageraho mu buzima bwe bwa buri munsi.”

Akomeza ati “Niko Kwa kugira ubugiri ariko ntugire ubugwiza. Gusa aho kutaremya bitandukanira n’Inyatsi ubwayo ni uko kutaremya ari kimwe mu biranga inyatsi mu gihe inyatsi ubwayo yo isobanuye kuburirwa no kubuririza mu buzima bwa muntu kandi mu byo udasobanukirwa.”

Mu Rwanda rwo hambere byabaga bikomeye cyane mu buzima. Abanyarwanda wasangaga mu mateka y’imico yabo, iyo umuntu yibonaga ntacyo ageraho kandi ntako atagize nta n’icyo yishinja nk’ubunebwe cyangwa gusesagura, yagombaga gufata akanya akajya kubibariza cyangwa kubihanuriza akamenya kabitera ndetse akahava ahawe n’intsinzi yabyo. Nkuko bikomeza bishimangirwa na Muganga Rutangarwamaboko.

Ati “Ni ho usanga nko mu mico y’ahandi nka isiraheli abantu bajya kubaza umuhanuzi abo bitaga ba Bamenya (basa neza neza n’abapfumu b’ino iwacu) ngo babamenyere insiriri y’ubuzima barimo kandi babahe cyangwa bababwire n’igisubizo cyangwa intsinzi yazatuma bagera ku mutsindo w’ubuzima bakagira ubuzima busendereye kandi busagambye.”

Inzobere mu mitekerereze ya muntu (Psychologie) ndetse no mu by’imikorere n’imihindagurikire ijyanye n’ibitsina (Sexologie) Albert Gakwaya, yifashishije imyumvire n’imyemerere hanyuma yifashisha inkoranya ebyiri zo ku rwego rw’isi z’indwara zo mu mutwe DSM y’aba psychiatres b’abanyamerika na CIM y’umuryango w’abibumbye ishami ryawo rishinzwe ubuzima, agereranya inyatsi nk’indwara cyangwa imyitwarire idasanzwe iba ibura gato ngo ihinduke indwara ziba mu gice cy’ibyitwa ‘kuba imbata y’ikintu, imyitwarire, cyangwa se imikino’ yibanda ahanini ku ndwara yo guhaha bidasanzwe’.

Mu kiganiro yagiranye na Kigali today, yagerageje gusobanura inyatsi muri make yerekana uko imyunvire n’imyemerere hamwe n’indwara y’ububata bwo guhaha cyane, ari byo by’ingezi bisobanura imikorere y’inyatsi ubwayo, maze agaragaza ko hari ibyo abantu biyunvishije bigahinduka imyemerere.

Agaragaza ibigaragaza uwishyizemo ko afite inyatsi.

• Aba ari umuntu mwiza ugaragaza gutuza bitamenyerewe utagirana ibibazo n’abantu,
• Guhinduka cyane mu mibereho, cyane cyane agana mu bukene «Gucupira»,
• Ubutunzi n’ amafaranga biramuhunga kuburyo budasobanutse.

Akomeza agira ati «agira imvugo zigira ziti ‘N’ubundi kuri njye ntacyo ndamira kuko n’ubundi mu muryango wacu inyatsi ni karande. Yewe ni nk’umuvumo!, N’ubundi kuri njyewe amafaranga cyangwa ubukungu si ibintu byanjye peee, n’ubundi ibintu by’ubutunzi simbisobanukiwe kuko uko byagenda kose burangira burangiye,Kugira invugo ivuga akarengane, invugo zirimo gucika intege, rimwe na rimwe zuzuye imyivumbagatanyo,invugo z’ibitagenda neza hose mu buzima bw’abantu, ndetse no kwivuga nabi biherekejwe n’imbamutima zijyanye nabyo.»

Albert Gakwaya agaragaza ko hari ubyiremamo akumva ko yafashwe n’inyatsi bikamuzonga (mecanismes intrapsychique dans la consolidation des convictions erronnees).Uwo ni we wemera ko inyatsi ibaho, bigahinduka imyemerere fatizo, ibitekerezo bibishingiyeho n’imbamutima (sentiments) n’amarangamutima (Emotions) bijyanye no kubitekereza bibabaje kandi biteye ubwoba byuzurirana umutwe bigasigara aribyo bimuzunguruka ubuziraherezo mu mutwe ku buryo bibuza gutekereza ibindi.

Ati «Byumwihariko kutagira iby’ibanze mu buzima (besoins primaires) bisanzwe bizwi ko bijyana n’imbamutima n’amarangamutima byiganjemo ubwoba no guhangayika, kuko nyine umuntu aba yibona yasuruye yabuze aho aba, ibimutunga n’ibindi, agasigara abona ibintu byose mu ndorerwamo yo gutakaza, kudatunga mbega abona ibintu bibi biteye n’ubwoba.»

Akomeza asobanura ko igice kinini cy’ubwonko gishinzwe imirimo itandukanye y’imikorere ya muntu gitsikamirwa n’ ubwuzurirane bw’ayo marangamutima ugasanga umuntu afite ibitekerezo bidakurikiranye, ikimusaba kubona ibisubizo akoresheje ubwenge bikamunanira. Avuga ko uko iyo myunvire igenda ishinga imizi gahoro gahoro, hagera ubwo nyirayo ageraho akakira burundu kuzabana n’iyo nyatsi, yo kutagira uburyo cyangwa ubutunzi n’ibindi.

Agaragaza ko hari abumva barafashwe n’imivumo y’inyatsi kubera wenda ibyaha abakurambere babo babahayeho umurage nk’uruhererekane.

Ati «Kugira imigenzo n’imiziririzo bakeka ko yagabanya ubukana cyangwa yagusha neza isoko y’iyo mivumo, muri iyo migenzo hakabamo kujya kubaza abaraguzi cyangwa abapfumu, se cyangwa na none akitabaza abakinamayobera, biti ihi se bagatangira inzira zitaziguye zishaka ubwo buryo. Uko byigira imbere agatangira kumva ntawe ashaka guhura nawe, ibyo yakundaga agatangira kwiyinjizamo kubireka kuko atabasha kubyiha, kujya muri gahunda yo kubeshya ko utakibikunda ariko wabihabwa ntubireke n’ibindi.»

Hari abagira indwara yo guhaha cyane n'ibyo badakeneye bamara kubihaha agahinda kakabica
Hari abagira indwara yo guhaha cyane n’ibyo badakeneye bamara kubihaha agahinda kakabica

Albert Gakwaya avuga ko uko psychologie na psychanalyse bigerageza gusobanura, isobanura umuntu usa n’ uwo mu Rwanda bavuga ko afite inyatsi, ko aba afite ibimenyetso bisa nk’ibivugwa ku kugira inyatsi bituruka mu myunvire ishingiye ku myemerere idasanzwe. Bishatse kuvuga ukwemera ko imivumo y’inyatsi ibaho, bitewe n’uko iyo myumvire igenda ikihindura rwihishwa kimwe mu bigize umuntu, we aba atibuka.

Ati «Nkuko bizwi umutumirwa utatumiwe ntasiba kwibonekeza bigahangayika nyir’urugo kuko aba atazi aho aturutse, by’umwihariko wa mutumirwa utazwi akaba afite amabara cyangwa yiyita ko atumwe n’umuvumo (Malédiction). Muntu aho ava akagera atinya umuvumo, ndetse benshi bakawubaha ukabahangayikisha (Anxiété), ubuzima bugahinduka guhora bashaka icyatuma bahashya ubukana bw’ uwo muhangayiko, ariko ukabakoresha ibidasanzwe, n’uko hagatangira ibikorwa bidasanzwe byisubiramo kandi kenshi (Compulsion), »

Akomeza agira ati «Iyiga mitekerereze, miterere, na myitwarire (Psychologie) rivuga ko abagira inyatsi mu kinyarwanda basa cyane n’abafite ikibazo cyo kuba imbata y’ikintu runaka mu buryo bwa rusange (addiction en generale) nkuko bisobanurwa na za nkoranyamagambo z’indwara zo mu mutwe uko ari ebyiri zemewe ku isi, rumwe rw’abaganga b’indwara zo mu mutwe b’Abanyamerika (DSM) ndetse n’urw’ umuryango w’abibumbye ishami ryawo ry’ubuzima CIM.»

Avuga kandi ko indwara yo kuba imbata y’ikintu runaka nayo yavaho icyo umuntu aburira inyito akacyita inyatsi. Avuga ko habaho n’indwara itera umuntu, agahora yumva yagura ikimushimishije cyose (guhaha by’ indwara ‘depensier compulsi’). Asobanura uko psychanalyse isobanura umuhashyi by’indwara uko bimugendekera (explication des mécanisme intra psychique).

Ati «Iyo migurire y’uburwayi kenshi iba isa nk’iyuzuza ibyo yiyumvamo bibura (sensation de manque) ariko adasobanukiwe (inconsciemment).Afatwa n’ikibatsi cy’umunyenga (excitation) kimukoramo igitekerezo cyo guhaha vuba na bwangu, kandi uko agenda yegereza kubasha guhaha niko ikibatsi kiyongera akaza kunyurwa ageze aho agomba kwishyurira, bigahita bikurikirwa no kugabanuka kwa cya kibatsi. Muri psychanalyse byitwa (jouissance), bimutera kumva yongeye kuba we wese, muri uko kunyurwa kuri we bisa nkaho ar’ubudahangarwa ndetse cyane agakeka ko bikagira icyo byongera kuko asanzwe agaragara».

Akomeza agira ati «Kuko gahunda y’imbere muri we nawe adasobanukirwa si ugutunga ibyo yaguze ahubwo ni ukugura gusa kenshi kisubiramo.Iyo ahashye akanyurwa (jouissance) rero ntahagararira aho kuko, ni ibintu byisubiramo kandi kesnhi, kuko iyo amaze guhaha aricuza cyane agafatwa n’agahinda k’umurengera (déprime igana muri Dépression) kuko za ngufu zamusunikaga zihita zishira. Ni bwo yongera gupanga uburyo yakongera kujya guhaha vuba na bwangu kugirango yongere abe muri cya kibatsi cy’umunyenga kibanziriza guhaha by’indwara navuze hejuru bigakomeza gutyo gutyo, ariko mu ibanga rikomeye ntawubimenya wundi bikagaragara yarakennye yaragurishije utwe twose.

Albert Gakwaya avuga ko bihinduka indwara igihe cya gitekerezo cyo guhaha kigenda gahoro gahoro gifata bugwate ibitekerezo bya muntu, intego zuwo byafashe bugwate ibitekerezo bye ikaba guhaha umunsi wose, nta kindi atekereza. Bitangira kwitwa indwara iyo nyir’ukubigira abisubiramo cyane agahaha agasubirayo, ku buryo byica ubuzima bwe mu bandi, akazi akakica, akaba ari ku kazi abaza aho iki n’iki bihahwa, akajya kuri interineti gushaka amaduka, kunyura mu maduka agahaha, gutoroka akazi akajya guhaha, akazarangiza asigaye nta n’urumiya yibitseho, ‘comptes’ ze byararangiye, yaragurishije yaramaririje utwe twose, ari mu myenda ndenga kamere kandi rwihishwa.

Avuga ko ibimenyetso bimugaragaraho ari “Iryo haha ry’uburwayi rikorwa nawe wenyine mu ibanga rikomeye, abandi bakabimenya yararengeje igaruriro,Kuba ubona nawe atazi ibyarimo,Gutangira gucika mu bantu,Kwanga ibyo yakundaga bindi, Kwunva atajya ku kazi kari kamutunze, n’ibindi.”

Hari impamvu zatuma umuntu ashobora kuzibasirwa n’ubukene akazabwita inyatsi

Albert Gakwaya avuga hari ibintu bikunze kuba nyirabayazana y’iyo mihahire ishobora kuzaganisha ku bizitwa inyatsi, nk’igihe mu bwana bwawe cyane cyane mu mezi atandatu kuzamura kugeza kuri 18 waragiye ugira ingorane zo kwitabwaho bikwiriye n’umubyeyi wawe cyangwa undi ubishinzwe, ibyibanze nkenerwa (ibifungurwa, n’ibindi bikenerwa) ukabibona wahogoye, igihe na none mu bwana bwawe ibyo wahawe utabikeneye,ugahabwa ibyangombwa by’umurengera, ibyibanze nkenerwa mu bwana bwawe cyane cyane muri ya mezi atandatu kuzamura, bikozwe n’umubyeyi wawe ufite umuhangayiko udasanzwe, (angoissé cg anxieuse) uko kubihatirwa, umwana atarabikenera, bikaba byakuremamo kuzinukwa byihishe (inconsciemment) bikazajya bihora bigukomanga utazi aho bituruka.

Ati “Iyo indwara y’agahinda gakomeye (Dépression) yagufashe ariko mu buryo bwihishe, kuko habaho iyihishe (Dépression masquée) ari nayo rwica ruhoze, ukumva warazahaye, ubuzima bwarakubihiye, maze cya gitekerezo cyakuzamo ukumva ufashwa na cya kibatsi cy’ingufu ziganisha mu munyenga wo guhaha, bikaba aribyo bigushuka ko umerewe neza”

Albert Gakwaya agira ati “Hari abagerageza gufata imiti itandukanye cyane cyane irimo ibifasha cyane kuzamura akanyamuneza, kuko iyo miti akenshi iba yifitemo ubushobozi bwo kuzengurutsa cyangwa gutembereza icyo bita ‘sérotonine’ igira uruhare mu gutera akanyamuneza, bikagabanya ka gahinda gakabije , ari nako bigabanya kwa gushaka guhaha cyane bigaturukaho.”

Asoza agira ati “ Murazi mwese ko ukubwira ngo afite inyatsi aba avuga ati ntako mba nta gize ngo mpahe bike ngure ibidahenze, nizirike umukanada ariko shwi.Ariko akiyibagiza ko ajya muri ‘restaurant’ agafungura, cyangwa akagura ibindi bintu yasize iwe cyangwa yakoresha abikuye ahadahenze, cyangwa se na none gutanga bitunguranye bikica gahunda zisanzwe mu buzima ugasanga ubaye ‘dépensier’ udakabije, ari we w’ inyatsi uko iwacu ivugwa. Kandi ubwo tutavuze n’utundi tuntu aba yiherereye akagura tukamumaraho ubushobozi.”

Albert Gakwaya avuga ko Iyo uri ‘petit dépensier’, ugatangira guseserwa n’imyumvire ko ugira inyatsi. Iyo udafashijwe ushobora kwisanga muri babandi bahaha by’indwara kuko uba ubihembere , bikaba bibi kuko ubikora rwihishwa bikazamenyekana wararengeje igaruriro.

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Ibitekerezo   ( 1 )

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gatare yanditse ku itariki ya: 19-08-2019  →  Musubize

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