Sobanukirwa amateka ya ‘Nyabingi’

N’ubwo izina ryamamaye cyane ari Nyabingi ariko izina rye ry’Ikinyarwanda ni Nyabyinshi, bivuze umuntu ufite ubutunzi bwinshi, ni izina ryahawe umukobwa uvugwa ko we na Ruganzu ll Ndoli, bavutse ari impanga babyawe na Ndahiro ll Cyamatare.

Imwe mu ngoro za Nyabingi zikiriho, ngo bashatse kuyisenya icyo giti kirayirinda
Imwe mu ngoro za Nyabingi zikiriho, ngo bashatse kuyisenya icyo giti kirayirinda

Kwitwa Nyabingi byakomotse ku rurimi rw’urukiga, bavuga Nyabyinshi, mu rukiga ho bakiyumvira Nyabingi, izina zihama rityo.

Ntabwo umwaka nyawo w’igihe bavukiye uzwi neza, ariko amavuko ye abarirwa mu myaka ya za 1600-1800, izina rya Nyabingi bavuga ko yaryiswe n’ababyeyi be, ariko biba wa mugani w’Ikinyarwanda ngo izina niryo muntu, aho uwo mukobwa yagize ubutunzi bwinshi nyuma y’uko agabiwe Ndorwa.

Izina Nyabingi rizwi cyane mu muco wo guterekera, ngo niko gusenga kwakorwaga n’abayoboke ba Nyabingi ubwo bamwiyambazaga amaze gupfa ngo abavuganire kuri Rugira n’Iyakare ariyo Mana, uwo muhango ugakorerwa mu Ndaro (ingoro), arirwo rusengero rw’ubu, ibyegera bya Nyabingi bakitwa Abagirwa babaga biganjemo igitsina gore.

Na n’ubu Mu Rwanda, by’umwihariko mu duce tw’Amajyaruguru, hari ahakigaragara ibimenyetso biranga imibereho ya Nyabingi, ku gicumbi cy’uwo muco ni mu Murenge wa Butaro mu Karere ka Burera.

Muri ako gace hari abakiriho mu bahose ari Abagirwa ba Nyabingi, aho bagiye basimburana mu buryo bw’uruhererekane bamwe basimbura ababyeyi babo, hakaba hakigaragara inzu za Nyabingi (Indaro/ingoro) aho baterekereraga.

Twaganiriye na bamwe muri bo barimo umusaza witwa Rwicumugi Andrew wavutse mu 1935, wiyemerera ko yabaye Umugirwa wa Nyabingi mbere y’uko uwo muco utangira gukendera.

Ati “Njye navutse ababyeyi banjye baterekera nanjye ndabasimbura, byose byasojwe muri 1991. Buri mwaka hakorwaga umuhango wo guterekera, buri wese mu bahanye igihango na Nyabingi akazana inzoga tugasuka ahongaho tukarara ducuranga abazi kubyina bakiyereka, tutabikora Nyabingi ikadutera ariko natwe icyo twasabaga cyose cyarabonekaga, yaba ari imvura n’ibindi byose bikenewe”.

Mu kumenya neza ukuri ku byaranze Nyabingi, Kigali Today yegereye Niyitegeka Jean impuguke mu mateka ya Nyabingi, akaba n’Umuyobozi w’ikigo cyo gusigasira umuco n’amateka y’igihugu no kurengera ibidukikije, cyitwa Burera Youth Community. Avuga ko bashinze icyo kigo nyuma y’uko babonye ko mu gace k’iwabo hari amateka akomeye yabyazwa umusaruro ku rwego rw’isi, ndetse banashinga ikigo cy’ubukerarugendo bushingiye ku mateka ya Nyabingi cyitwa The Roots of Nyabingi Heritage Center.

Avuga ko amateka ya Nyabingi mu Rwanda bayakesha igitabo cy’umugore witwa Scholastique Mukasonga, Umunyarwanda uba mu Bufaransa, wanditse filime yitwa Notre Femme du Nil.

Ahubatse ikigo gisigasiye amateka ya Nyabingi hakomeje gusurwa
Ahubatse ikigo gisigasiye amateka ya Nyabingi hakomeje gusurwa

Ngo yakoze iyo Film nyuma y’uko agiye gusura mu birwa bya Caraïbe, bamubajije aho avuga ababwira ko ari Umunyarwanda, ngo bamubajije niba azi Nyabingi kubera ipfunwe ry’ayo mateka arabihakana.

Niyitegeka ati “Baramubajije bati ese uzi Nyabingi, ati toka kwa Jina la Yesu, toka shitani, baramubwira bati, Oya Nyabingi yabayeho yari umukobwa w’isugi w’Umunyarwandakazi”.

Ati “Mwibaze kuba abanyamahanga aribo bamubwira ko Nyabingi yabayeho bamwereka n’uburyo bamwemera ndetse bamwiyambaza, mu gihe we yahise amwihakana yumva ko ari ikintu kibi”.

Niyitegeka avuga ko uwo mugore yagize amatsiko yo kumenya neza amateka ya Nyabingi agaruka mu Rwanda ikitaraganya kuyakurikirana, aribwo yaje kumenya ko Nyabingi yari umuntu w’agaciro nk’uko yabibwiwe n’abo banyamahanga, akaba umukobwa wa Ndahiro ll Cyamatare, mushiki wa Ruganzu Ndoli aho bavutse hagati y’ikinyejana cya 15 n’icya 16.

Niyitegeka agira ati “Amateka atubwira ko Nyabingi (Nyabyinshi) na Ruganzu Ndoli bavutse ari impanga, ariko bakavuka bose bafite imbuto. Ni ibintu bitigeze bibaho ko umwami avuka ari impanga n’undi, kandi umwe akavuka ari umukobwa undi ari umuhungu.

Ngo nyuma y’uko Umwami Ndahiro ll Cyamatare yari asumbirijwe n’intambara yo hagati mu gihugu, arimo guhigwa n’ingabo za Nzira ya Muramira wayoboraga ubwami bw’Ubugara muri Burera, Musanze, igice cya Gakenke n’icya Nyabihu, harwana kandi na Nsibura Nyebungo umwami w’u Bugoyi, ngo Ndahiro yafashe umwanzuro wo guhungishiriza (Kubunda: Umwami ntahunga arabunda) abana be i Karagwe k’Abahinda kwa Nyirasenge Nyabunyana.

Igihugu cyamaze imyaka 11 nta Mwami gihura n’akaga gakomeye

Nk’uko Niyitegeka abivuga, nyuma y’itanga rya se wa Ruganzu, Igihugu cy’u Rwanda cyamaze imyaka 11 nta mwami wo kumusimbura kuko Ruganzu yari yarabundiye i Karagwe, ari bwo Igihugu cyagize ibibazo bikomeye by’amapfa, ababyeyi ntibabyara, abiru bajya inama yo kugarura Ruganzu Ndoli.

Uwari uzi aho Ruganzu na mushikiwe Nyabingi bari ni Kavuna, ari na we bahisemo ngo ajye kubundura Ruganzu na Nyabingi, nibwo Kavuna akigera i Karagwe yabwiye Nyabunyana ikimugenza, baracyumva biba ngombwa ko Nyabunyana afata umwanzuro wo kurekura Ruganzu na Nyabingi, bakagaruka mu Rwanda.

Mbere y’uko umwami Ruganzu agaruka mu Rwanda, yagombaga kubwirwa na Nyirasenge Nyabunyana amabanga y’Ubwiru, Kavuna arabumvirisa babonye ko yumvise ayo mabanga bahitamo kwanga kumwambutsa ngo atazamena amabanga y’Ibwami, umwami akagira ibibazo.

Ati “Kavuna akimara kumva ayo mabanga, yageze ku kiyaga abasare banga kumwambutsa nk’uko bari babitegetse na Nyirasenge wa Ruganzu, nibwo yahise afata umuheto n’imyambi yari afite arabivuna agira ati, uyu muruho narushye ugapfa ubusa! Abagabo, abagore, abakobwa n’abahungu b’i Rwanda bazawuruhe, niho hakomotse imvugo igira iti Kuruha uwakavuna, bivuze kuruhira ubusa nta nyiturano, ahita yiyahura”.

Ruganzu na Nyabingi bakimara kwambuka Akagera binjira mu Rwanda, urugo rwa mbere basohoreyeho, umugore wari imaze imyaka myinshi atwite inda yaranze kuvuka, yahise abyara, n’inka yari muri urwo rugo ihita ibyara n’imvura iragwa nyuma y’igihe kirekire hari amapfa. Nibwo yacumbikishije mushiki we ahitwa Kagarama muri Uganda y’ubu, ajya muri Nyakinama muri Nkotsi na Bikara aho abami bose bo mu Rwanda bimikiwe.

Akimara kwimikwa uwo mwami ahura na Ryangombe amuha imitsindo imufasha gutsinda Nzira ya Munanira, aho yagiye iwe gushaka ubuhake yiyoberanyije yigira umugaragu, ariho havuye inyito ye igira iti “Cyitatire cya Rwambarantama”, kubera uburyo yambaraga nabi yiyoberanya.

Niyitegeka Jean, impuguke mu mateka ya Nyabingi
Niyitegeka Jean, impuguke mu mateka ya Nyabingi

Kubera imitsindo Ryangombe yari yamuhaye nibwo muri uko kwigira umugaragu kwa Nzira ya Muramira, yasabwe kujya kwasa inkwi, atema igiti cy’Umurinzi cy’ibwami, bituma imbaraga z’ibwami zigabanuka, ingabo za Ruganzu zinesha iza Nzira ya Muramira.

Ingabo za Ruganzu zikimara gutsinda ingabo za Muramira, izo ngabo zahunze zigana hafi y’ikiyaga cya Burera, Ruganzu afata ingasha ayitera Muramira, ayitaje igwa mu kiyaga ariho havuye izina rya Butangashya, agace ko mu Murenge wa Kinyababa mu Karere ka Burera.

Uko Nyabingi yagabiwe Ndorwa

Nyuma y’uko Ruganzu amaze kunesha ingabo za Nzira ya Muramira, yagiye kuzana mushikiwe Nyabingi aho yari yamucumbikishirije, ahita amuha Ndorwa nk’iteto ry’abakobwa, aho Ndorwa ni mu cyahoze ari komini Butaro, Cyeru, Byumba n’Umutara kugera kuri Lac Edouard muri Uganda. Igice gisigaye cya Nduga kigizwe n’icyahoze ari Gitarama na Butare, igice kinini cya Congo muri Kivu y’Amajyepfo n’Amajyaruguru n’igice cya Tanzania.

Umwami Ruganzu na Nyabingi baciye iteka ko nta Mwami w’u Rwanda ugomba gutera Ndorwa yari yaragabiwe Nyabingi, ngo Rwabugiri ni we wagerageje kuyitera bimuviramo gupfa ababaye, nyuma y’uko arenze ku masezerano ya Nyabingi na Musaza we Ruganzu Ndoli.

Mu gice cya Ndorwa ngo Nyabingi yarakunzwe yigarurira imitima y’abaturage, umuhango wari usanzwe wo guterekera uhabwa imbaraga ndetse uranamwitirirwa, nk’uko Niyitegeka akomeza abivuga.

Ati “Guterekera kwari ukwambaza Imana Rugira, Iyakare, aho baterekeraga abantu bose b’intwari ariko batakiriho, bakamuterekera mu rwego rwo kuba umuhuza wabo n’Imana, ari nabwo batangiye guterekera Nyabingi nyuma y’uko apfuye, ndetse umuhango wo guterekera arawegurirwa.

Nyabingi yasimbuwe na Nyiramukiga, na we asimburwa na Rutagirakijume, uyu asimburwa na Rutindangezi, avuyeho asimburwa na Biheko bya Ngobyi wishwe na Rwabugiri, aho bamuciye igihanga umutwe ujugunywa mu kiyaga, ari nayo mpamvu icyo kiyaga cyahise gikama ari rwo Urugezi tubona uyu munsi.

Ngo nyuma y’urupfu rwa Nyabingi, abagaragu be bitwa Abagirwa bashyize imbaraga mu kumuterekera biba umuco cyane cyane mu Ndorwa (agace k’Amajyaruguru), aho uwagirwaga umugirwa yabaga ari uwafashwe n’imbaraga za Nyabingi.

Ati “Uwabaga Umugirwa yimikwaga nyuma y’uko abanje kugaragaraho imbaraga za Nyabingi, Umugirwa wanyuranyaga n’ukwemera kwa Nyabingi byamugiragaho ingaruka, aho umuzimu wa Nyabingi wamuteraga, akazakira ari uko atanze icyiru”.

Nyabingi ni we mbarutso y’ivuka ry’Abarasta

Hirya no hino ku isi hari ibihugu byiyambaza Nyabingi nk’umugore waranzwe n’ubudahangarwa, aho ibigwi bye byatumye bamwe mu Banya-Ethiopie na Jamaïka bashinga itsinda ry’Abarasta bangaga akarengane gakorerwa abirabura, by’umwihariko mu gihe cy’itundwa ryabo (Traite négrière), mu cyo bise Nyabingi Chants.

Niyitegeka avuga ko ‘Rastafarisme’ ishingiye kuri Nyabingi aho yatangijwe na Haile Selassie, Umwami w’abami wa Ethiopie, ubwo abakoloni b’Abongereza bazaga gukoloniza Uganda, muri icyo gihe hari ubucuruzi bw’abantu, Abarasta bakagira imyumvire yo gusubira iwabo muri Afurika bafataga nka Kanani yabo cyangwa ahantu ho gucungurirwa, ariho muri Ethiopia.

Niyitegeka avuga ko bihaye gahunda yo gusigasira ayo mateka ya Nyabingi, nyuma y’uko babonye ko abanyamahanga bakomeje kugaragaza agaciro gakomeye ka Nyabingi mu mibereho yabo, nibwo muri 2017 bagize igitekerezo cyo gushinga ikigo cy’ubukerarugendo bushingiye ku muco n’amateka.

Bakimara gushyira imbaraga muri ubwo bukerarugendo, ngo abantu benshi baturutse mu mahanga baraza kuhasura, aho hari n’Umunya-Ethiopia wahisemo gushinga Kampani itwara ba Mukerarugendo yitwa Queen Nyabingi.

Ati “Abanya-Ethiopie bumva Nyabingi kuruta uko twebwe tuyumva, uko utatandukanya Kiliziya Gatolika na Bikiramariya, ni nako utatandukanya Rastafari na Nyabingi. Buriya Rukara impamvu yari umurwanyi cyane akabona intsinzi, Abarashi bari barakwikiriwe icumu na Nyabingi, niho bakuraga intsinzi. Buriya abarashi bemeraga Nyabingi ku rwego rwo hejuru ku buryo kumubabuza byari ikibazo”.

Ayo mateka akomeje gusurwa n
Ayo mateka akomeje gusurwa n’inzego zinyuranye z’ubuyobozi

Niyitegeka aremeza ko muri iyo gahunda yo gusigasira umuco ushingiye ku bukerarugendo, hari abantu bamwe bagiye babyumva bigoranye, ashimira ubuyobozi bw’Akarere ka Musanze na RDB bakomeje kubashyigikira mu gusigasira ubwo bukerarugendo, aho bahawe uburenganzira bwo gucunga amateka ashingiye ku muco mu Karere ka Burera.

Avuga ko mbere ya Covid-19 bari bageze ku rwego rwo kwinjiza amafaranga angana na miliyoni eshatu ku kwezi aturuka kuri ba Mukerarugendo, bakaba bakomeje guteza imbere icyo kigo ku bufatanye na Kaminuza zinyuranye zirimo iya Butaro n’Umushinga Partners in Health, aho biteguye kubaka ibikorwa birimo stade y’ubukerarugendo isanga Musée irimo ayo mateka.

Avuga ko amashuri yisumbuye akomeje kuza kwiga ayo mateka ya Nyabingi, ndetse n’abaturage bajyaga batinya kuhasura bakaba batangiye gutinyuka.
Abagize Burera Youth Community, batangiye ari batanu aho bageze kuri 192, bakaba basaba Leta kubafasha kumurika ibikorwa bishingiye ku mateka ya Nyabingi, mu rwego rwo kurushaho kuyamenyekanisha no gukomeza kubashyigikira mu gusigasira umuco gakondo.

Isumo rya Rugezi rikomeje gusurwa na bamwe biganjemo abanyeshuri
Isumo rya Rugezi rikomeje gusurwa na bamwe biganjemo abanyeshuri
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Ibitekerezo   ( 1 )

Ni bishya pe! Ni ubwa mbere numvise ko Nyabingi yari umunyarwandakazi noneho igikomangoma cy’u Rwanda. Jye nari narumvise ko yari umugandekazi kimwe na Ryangombe.
Kumenya amateka ye ni byiza, ariko se kumusenga koko ni ngombwa?
None se ko Ruganzu adasengwa yari umwami, kuki mushiki we yasengwa cga yakwiyambazwa?

iganze yanditse ku itariki ya: 24-08-2022  →  Musubize

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