Menya uko ‘Carte du mérite Civique’ yemereraga abirabura gusabana n’abazungu mu bihe by’ubukoloni yatangwaga

Abanyaburayi baza gukoloniza ibihugu bya Afurika mu ntego zabo harimo guhindura abanyafurika bagasa nkabo mu myemerere, imibereho n’ibindi. Ahenshi nko mu Rwanda, mu Burundi na Congo kugira ngo usabane na bo hari igihe byasabaga icyemezo kigaragaza ko ibyo watojwe wabifashe bityo urimo kugenda ugera ku rwego rwo kubaho kizungu.

Umwami Rudahigwa ni we wavanyeho ihezwa ry
Umwami Rudahigwa ni we wavanyeho ihezwa ry’abirabura mu tubari no muri hoteli abazungu bajyagamo

Kigali Today yagize amahirwe yo kugera ku nzu ndangamurage ya Africa Museum iherereye mu Bubiligi (Tervuren), inzu ishyinguyemo amateka ya Afurika mu gihe cy’ubukoloni, aho yasanze bimwe mu mateka, harimo n’amafoto ajyanye n’icyangombwa Ababirigi bahaga abirabura kugirango bazamurwe mu ntera, bemererwe gusabana no kugenderanirana na bo.

Umunyamateka akaba umukozi n’inzobere mu by’amateka mu nzu ndangamurage ya Africa Museum, Dr. Dantès Singiza, avuga ko icyo cyangombwa cyagombaga gutangwa, ugihawe akaba ameze nk’uzamuwe mu ntera, asumbyeho abandi Birabura.

Ubwo amashuri yari amaze kuba menshi mu Rwanda, abayajyagamo batangiye kugira imyitwarire itadukanye n’iyo ababyeyi babo ndetse n’abo babaga bafitanye isano cyangwa babanaga batabaga barayagezemo.

Byatumye mu Rwanda rw’icyo gihe, abazungu bahimba amagambo agamije gushyira abahindutse mu byiciro. Abaturage basanzwe, bamwe batageze mu ishuri bitwaga ‘Indigènes’, na ho ababaga bakubutse mu mashuri batangiye kwitwara kizungu bavuga n’Igifaransa, abo bitwaga Evolués, Abanyarwanda baje kubahimba Imvuruwe.

Abenshi muri abo babaga barangije amashuri, babaga bafite imirimo runaka bakora banahemberwa itandukanye no korora no guhinga byakorwaga na rubanda rusanzwe. Imirimo yabo akenshi yabaga ifite aho ihuriye n’iy’abazungu dore ko ari bo ahanini babagenzuraga.

N’ubwo abazungu babaga baziranye, abo birabura b’imvuruwe ntibabaga bemerewe gusabana, kugenderana no gusangira n’abazungu, keretse ababaga bafite icyangombwa cyatanzwe na Résident w’u Ruanda cyangwa Vice-gouverneur wa Ruanda-Urundi.

Mu bucukumbuzi Kigali today yakoze yabonye ko no mu nsengero nko muri Kiliziya y’Umuryango Mutagatifu iri mu zikuze mu gihugu, ba évolués bagenerwaga umwanya wabo, bagateganyirizwa n’intebe zegamirwa bityo bakaba batandukanye n’abakirisitu bo muri rubanda.

Abazungu na bo bagiraga uruhande rwabo bagategurirwa n’udusego two gupfukumaho. Utwo dusego tukabatandukanya na ba évolués.”

Gusabana, kugenderana no gusangira n’abazungu muri hoteli cyangwa se resitora, keretse ababaga bafite icyangombwa cyatanzwe na Résident du Ruanda cyangwa Vice-gouverneur du Ruanda-Urundi.

Amateka agaragaza ko nko mu tubari Café Impala i Kigali cyangwa muri hoteli Faucon i Butare hagitangira, nta munyafurika wakandagiragamo uretse umwami gusa.

Kugira ngo ushyikirane n’abazungu, musangire, mugenderane wagombaga kugira icyangombwa cyanditse cyerekana ko nawe wahindutse ufite imyitwarire nk’iy’abazungu. Icyo cyangombwa cyitwaga Carte du mérite civique. Icyo cyemezo cyanahabwaga abaturage bo muri Congo n’u Burundi babaga bagaragaza kwitwara nk’abazungu.

Icyo cyemezo cyatangwaga hashingiwe ku itegeko rigishyiraho, ryari riri mu mategeko mbonezamubano ya Congo Mbiligi yasohotse mu 1948.

Kugeza mu myaka ya 1950, icyo cyemezo no guheza abanyafurika byari bikigaragara kugeza ubwo umwami Rudahigwa abiciye ubwo yakubitaga umuzungu urushyi igihe yari ashatse kumwitambika ubwo yinjiraga muri Faucon avuye mu rugendo i Burudi, kuva icyo gihe Faucon benshi batangiye kuyigana bakayinyweramo n’inzoga bakanararamo.

Iyo Umunyarwanda yashakaga gufatwa nk’umuzungu, hakorwaga akanama kazajya kugenzura ko yitwara kizungu. Abagize ako kanama bazaga iwe mu rugo kureba uko yitwara, bakareba niba atunze intebe nziza mu nzu, niba afite ameza, utubati n’ibindi.

Dr Singiza avuga ko banarebaga uko we n’umugore n’abana bambaye haba imyenda n’inkweto, basanga bambaye nabi bakavuga ko bakiri abaturage (Indigenes).
Mu byagenzurwaga kandi harimo uburyo usaba icyemezo yitwara mu gihe ari kurya we n’umuryango we. Uwo basangaga adafite ibikoresho byo ku meza cyangwa abifite arisha intoki yabaga atakaje amanota.

Mu gihe bamwe bafataga bimwe mu biryo nk’ikizira ndetse ko bimwe muri byo bica inka , banarebaga ko imyumvire yahindutse, urugero barebaga ko iwe barya amagi, ko banywa icyayi, ko barya imigati cyangwa se banywa umuvinyo.

Uwo bazaga kugenzura bakahasanga urwagwa cyangwa amarwa, yabaga avuye mu mubare w’abazahabwa icyo cyemezo.

Mu gihe isuzuma ryabaga rirangiye, hakurikiragaho kujya gukorerwa igenzura, benshi babaga bategereje icyo cyemezo nk’umwana utegereje indangamanota imwimura mu wundi mwaka cyangwa umuntu utegereje Visa imwimurira mu kindi gihugu yifuza, kuko uwakibonaga byafatwaga nk’ishema kuri we cyangwa ku muryango we.

Mu byo bagenzuraga kandi habaga harimo no kureba ko uwakorewe igenzura avuga Igifaransa adategwa, abagize akanama bakoraga raporo ikoherezwa i Bruxelles mu Bubiligi, icyemezo kigatangwa na Résident wa Ruanda cyangwa Vice-gouverneur du Ruanda-Urundi.

Abagihabwaga bumvaga ko bari ku rwego rw’abazugu ariko si ko byari bimeze

Dr Singiza avuga ko Abazungu n’Abirabura bakomezaga kurutanwa mu mategeko, akomeza avuga ko mu manza umu évolué yisangaga yafashwe kimwe n’abandi Birabura bose mu maso n’imyumvire y’Abazungu, ngo banahanwaga kimwe, umushahara na wo ntabwo umu évolué yafataga ungana n’uw’umuzungu kandi bakora akazi kamwe.

Hotel Faucon yari imwe mu zikomeye mu Rwanda no mu Burundi, nta mwirabura wari wemerewe kuyinjiramo
Hotel Faucon yari imwe mu zikomeye mu Rwanda no mu Burundi, nta mwirabura wari wemerewe kuyinjiramo

Abazungu bagiraga inkiko n’amategeko yabo, n’Abirabura bakagira ibyabo. Abazungu bagiraga amashuri yabo yihariye, n’Abirabura bakagira ayabo.

Icyo Imvuluwe cyangwa Aba évolués boroherezwagaho kindi uretse gusabana, kugenderana no gusangira n’Abazungu muri hoteli cyangwa se resitora, harimo n’uko boroherezwaga gutemberera mu Bubiligi, muri Congo Mbiligi ndetse n’i Burundi, icyakora ngo byarabagoraga kurenga imbibi z’ibihugu bitayobowe n’Ababiligi.

Nyuma y’ubushakashatsi n’ubucukumbuzi Kigali Today yakoze, yabashije kumenya bamwe mu Banyarwanda bahawe icyo cyangombwa cya mérite Civique.

Abo Banyarwanda ni Prosper Bwanakweli waje kuba mu ishyaka RADER, Alexis Karekezi wahoze mu nama nkuru y’igihugu ku bw’umwami Mutara II Rudahigwa, Anastase Makuza wabaye Minisitiri muri Guverinoma ya Kayibanda Gregoire na Lazaro Ndazaro na we wabaye mu ishyaka rya RADER.

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