Menya byinshi byo mu mateka y’u Rwanda wasanga mu nzu ndangamurage ya ‘Africa Museum’

Umunyarwanda ugeze mu Bubuligi cyangwa ubayo, ashobora gusura inzu ndangamurage ya Africa Museum, agasobanukirwa na byinshi mu byaranze amateka y’urwanda byo mu myaka ya kera biri muri iyo nzu.

Bimwe mu biranga amateka y
Bimwe mu biranga amateka y’u Rwanda usanga mu nzu ndangamurage ya ‘Africa Museum’

Mbere yo kujya ku bijyanye n’ibyo umuntu yasura muri imwe mu nzu ndangamurage zikomeye, ariyo Africa Museum, reka tubanze tugaruke ku ivuka ry’iyi nzu ndangamurage imaze imyaka ijana ariko ku isura ikaba igaragara nk’aho yavutse ejo.

Iyi nzu ndangamurage yavutse ku gitekerezo cy’umwami Leopold wa II, wayoboye igihugu cy’u Bubiligi mu gihe cy’imyaka 44.

Ni umwami ukomeye mu mateka y’u Bubiligi kuko byinshi bihari mu bikorwa by’iterambere byabayeho ku gitekerezo cye, muri ibyo n’ubu bikomeje kugaragaza ubuhangange bw’icyo gihugu mu isi, harimo guteza imbere inganda aho mu bihe bye u Bubiligi bwigeze kuza ku mwanya wa munani ku isi mu bijyanye n’inganda. U Bubiligi ni na cyo gihugu cya kabiri ku mugabane w’u Bulayi cyagize umuhanda wa gariyamoshi uhuza umujyi n’intara nyuma y’u Bwongereza.

N’ubwo kuri Afurika afite isura itari nziza kubera ibyaha by’ubwicanyi byakozwe n’ingabo z’Ababiligi mu bihe by’ubukoloni, ibikorwa bye mu Bubiligi barabyubaha kuko iyo ugenda muri Buruseli n’ahandi uhasanga ibirango bye n’uduce twinshi twamwitiriwe.

Uyu mwami w’amateka mu Bubiligi ni we wazanye igitekerezo cyo gushinga inzu ndangamurage ya Africa Museum, yahoze yitwa Inzu ndangamurage y’ubwami y’amateka ya Afurika yo hagati (Musée Royal de l’Afrique Centrale).

Igitekerezo cyo gushinga iyi nzu ndangamurage cyaje nyuma yuko hari habaye imurikagurisha ryo mu mwaka wa 1897 ryabereye i Buruseli.

Ifoto y
Ifoto y’umugabekazi Kankazi n’umwamikazi Gicanda mu ishyingurwa ry’imwami Mutara wa III Rudahigwa

Umunyamateka akaba n’umukozi w’iyO nzu ndangamurage mu ishami ry’ubushakashatsi mu bushyinguranyandiko, Dr Dantes Singiza, avuga ko iryo murikagurisha ryabaye mu bihe by’ubukoloni igihe bwari bugezweho cyane ku isi bufatwa nk’ishema ku bihugu bikomeye.

Iryo murikagurisha ryitabiriwe n’ibihugu byo ku mugabane w’u Burayi bishishikajwe no kwerekana ibikorwa bijyanye n’ubukoloni byakoraga ahatandukanye muri Afurika.

Muri urwo rwego u BubiLigi bwitabiriye iryo murikagurisha ryari ryanabereye kandi muri icyo gihugu.

Muri icyo gihe herekanwa ibyo Ababiligi bari baragezeho muri Congo, bamuritse ibijyanye n’amabuye y’agaciro, inyamaswa ndetse n’uburyo bavugaga ko bagenda bageza Abanyecongo ku iterambere (Civilisation), iryo murikagurisha ryaramamaye cyane maze umwami Leopold wa II afata icyemezo cyo kubaka inzu ndangamurage.

Yubaka iyo nzu iri i Tervuren mu cyanya cy’ubwami yagira ngo yerekane ibirimo bikorerwa muri Congo ariko na none kugira ngo yerekane ishusho nziza y’ibyo akora muri Congo, kuko hari hatangiye kuba impaka z’ibyo barimo barakora muri Congo kuko harimo haba impfu z’abantu nyinshi mu bijyanye no gushaka Kawucu yakoreshwaga mu gukora amapine y’imodoka.

Imodoka itwaye umugogo w
Imodoka itwaye umugogo w’umwami Mutara wa III Rudahigwa

Mu imurikagurisha rya Buruseli, Leopold II yazanyemo abaturage bo muri Congo arabamurika agaragazaga uko babagaho aho yari yarabubakiye ahantu habo, abazungu bakaza kubasura. Ubwo bahageraga barindwi (7) muri bo bahise bapfa kubera ubuzima bwari buhindutse bageze mu gice cy’isi gikonja cyane, kuko baje mu bihe by’ubukonje.

Nyuma yuko iryo murikagurisha ritanze umusaruro aho haje abantu basaga miliyoni ebyiri (2) bazaga kureba abo baturage bo muri Congo berekanwaga nk’inyamaswa (Zoo Humain), n’ubwo we yagiraga ngo yerekane ko atari muri Congo ku bw’inyungu ze ahubwo harimo no guhindura ubuzima bwabo, yafashe icyemezo cyo gushinga inzu ndangamurage izajya ikomeza gukora ibikorwa nk’ibyo.

Yiyemeje kuyishinga itangira mu mwaka wa 1892, agenda akusanya ibikoresho bimaze kuba byinshi yafashe icyemezo cyo kubaka Ingoro ngari.

Imirimo y’ubwubatsi yatangiye mu 1904, bigeze mu 1908 umwami Leopold wa II yafashe icyemezo cy’uko Congo mbere yari umutungo we bwite, ko iba igihugu gikolonizwa n’u Bubiligi maze nyuma yo kuyitanga yitwa Congo Belge cyangwa Congo Mbiligi.
Ubwo ingoro yari yatangiye mu 1898 yitwaga Musée du Congo, amaze guha Congo u Bubiligi mu 1908 yahise yitwa Musée du Congo Belge.

Umwaka wakurikiyeho mu 1909 umwami Leopold wa II yarapfuye, kuko atari yarabyaye umuhungu asimburwa n’umwishwa we ari we umwami Albert wa I, umwaka wakurikiyeho mu 1910 nibwo Albert wa I yafunguye ku mugaragaro inzu ndangamurage ya Congo Mbirigi.

Mu myaka yakomeje mu 1952 iyo ngoro yaje guhabwa indi nyito ijyanye na none n’uko yari igiye kuba ikigo cy’ubwami, ihindura izina yitwa Musée Royale du Congo Belge.

Mu mwaka wa 1960 Congo imaze kubona ubwigenge, iyo ngoro yahinduye inyito yitwa Ingoro ndangamurage y’umwami irebana n’umurage wo muri Afurika yo hagati (Musee Royale d’Afrique centrale).

Yakomeje kuri iryo zina, mu 2010 yizihiza isabukuru y’imyaka 100 yari imaze ifunguwe ku mugaragaro n’umwami Albert wa I. Nyuma yo kunengwa na benshi ko iyo nzu yakomezaga kugaragaza amateka ya politiki ya mpatse ibihugu n’ivangura, mu mwaka wa 2013 hatangiye ibikorwa byo kuyivugurura ku nyubako ndetse no ku bikoresho byamurikwaga.

Ikintu cyavugururwaga mu bijyanye n’ubutumwa yatambutsaga bwari uburyo Abanyafurika babonwaga n’Abanyaburayi n’abandi bazungu.

Wasangaga ibitekerezo bya gikoloni bitarigeze bihinduka, urugero umwirabura uko yagaragazwaga mbere ni na ko byari byarakomeje, aho umwirabura yagaragazwaga nk’udafite umuco, utagira kirazira, wibera mu bupfumu, ufatwa nk’inyeshyamba, umwicanyi ndetse utaratandukanywaga n’inyamaswa.

Inka yasizwe imiti iyumisha ngo itangirika igaragara nk
Inka yasizwe imiti iyumisha ngo itangirika igaragara nk’ikimenyetso cy’ubukire mu Rwanda rwo hambere

Icyo gihe byabaye ngombwa ko iyo nzu ndangamurage itangira urugendo rwo guhindura iyo myumvire. Imaze kuvugururwa yongeye gufungura imiryango 2017 igaruka yitwa Africa Museum cyangwa se inzu ndangamurage ya Afurika.

Nyuma yo kugaruka ku mateka y’iyi nzu ndangamurage ibitse byinshi ku mateka ya Afurika mbere, mu gihe cy’Ubukoloni na nyuma yabwo, Kigali Today yabakusanyirije ibintu Umunyarwanda utuye ku mugabane w’u Burayi cyangwa uvuye ahandi yahatembereye yasura mu nzu ndangamurage ya Tervuren.

Ibirango by’Ubutegetsi

Igisingo cy’umwami Kigeli IV Rwabugiri, Inkoni y’ubwami y’umwami Kigeli wa IV Rwabugiri, Amashyoro y’Ibikomangoma cyangwa amashyoro yambarwaga n’abagore b’umwami. Ibi byose byatanzwe n’umwami Mutara wa III Rudahigwa mu mwaka wa 1949, ubwo yagiriraga uruzinduko rwa mbere mu Bubiligi.

Igisingo ni ikamba umwami yambaraga, yarikoreshaga uko abyifuza, irya Rwabugiri ryari rikozwe mu bwoya bw’ingunge yitwa Colobe iba muri Nyungwe.

Amashyoro: hari amashyoro y’ubwoko bwinshi, hari ayari akoze mu duti akaba ari uduti twambarwaga ku misaya, utwo duti hari ubwo twabaga dutaste cyangwa se tudatatse, iyo twabaga dutatse twabaga dutakishije amasaro, utwo duti cyangwa ayo mashyoro twambarwaga n’abantu bakomoka ku mwami, ni ukuvuga ibikomangoma n’abagore b’umwami cyangwa se abandi bantu bafitanye isano ya hafi n’i bwami.

Bimwe mu birango by
Bimwe mu birango by’ubutegetsi

Hari n’amashyoro yabaga akoze mu miringa yambarwaga mu gahanga cyangwa se ku misaya n’ibikomangoma n’abagore b’umwami.

Ibisigaratongo by’umwami Cyirima wa II Rujugira

Aha harimo amashusho y’iyo mva, na bimwe mu bikoresho (Copie) zasanzwe mu mva ya Kilima wa II Rujugira, ibikoresho by’umwimerere biba mu Rwanda mu ngoro ndangamurage iri i Butare.

Ayo mashusho yerekana ibikoresho byari biri mu mva, uko imva yari iteye ndetse harimo n’amafoto yuko umugogo w’umwami Kilima wa II Rujugira wasanzwe aho wari warashyinguwe i Gaseke mu mwaka wa 1932 ku mabwiriza ya Yuhi wa V Musinga, kugira ngo utazagwa mu maboko y’ababirigi bari bamaze kwimika umuhungu we Mutara wa III Rudahuigwa.

Amateka y’ubukoloni bwabaye muri Congo mu Rwanda no mu Burundi

Uretse amafoto atandukanye yo mu bihe by’ubukoloni ari ku nkuta harimo n’ingengabihe igaragara mu buryo bw’ikoranabuhanga, iyo ngengabihe yerekana amateka y’ibi bihugu kuva mu gihe cya gikoloni kugeza mu myaka ya vuba 2017, iyi ngengabihe yifashisha amafoto, amashusho n’ibisobanuro by’amagambo.

Mutara wa III Rudahigwa ni umwe mu bami b
Mutara wa III Rudahigwa ni umwe mu bami b’u Rwanda wagiranye umubano mwiza n’inzu ndangamurage ya Tervuren kuko yayisuye mu 1949, 1955 no mu 1958

Ibijyanye n’ubukungu n’ubutunzi bwo mu Rwanda

Ku bijyanye n’ubukungu harimo Inka isanzwe ifatwa nk’ikimenyetso cy’ubutunzi mu Rwanda rwo hambere, ni inka nyayo itari ikibumbano yasizwe imiti kugira ngo itangirika ikomeze kugaragara nk’inka. Iyo nka uyibona n’umubiri wayo, amahembe ndetse n’ubwoya bwayo.

Icyumba kigaragaza imibereho y’Abanyafurika bo muri Diaspora mu Bubiligi

Icyo cyumba cyerekana ingendo z’umwami Mutara wa III Rudahigwa yagiye agirira mu Bubiligi mu bihe bitandukanye nko mu mwaka wa 1949, urugendo rwo mu mwaka wa 1955 n’urugendo rwo mu mwaka wa 1958, ubwo habaga imurikagurisha mpuzamahanga ry’i Buruseli.

Muri iryo murikagurisha yari yaherekejwe n’umugore we umwamikazi Rosalie Gicanda, ndetse n’umugabekazi Nyiramavugo wa II, Kankazi Radegonda, yari yaherekejwe n’umunyamabanga we Jean Berchmas Kimenyi cya Karyabwite, yari yanaherekejwe na murumuna wa Nyina Nyiramavugo wa III Kankazi, ariwe Imakurata Kabanyana

Uretse abo yaje anaherekejwe n’intore zaserukiye u Rwanda mu ndirimbo no mu mbyino gakondo.
.
Inzobere mu mateka Dr Dantès Singiza avuga ko intore zari zaje zageraga nko kuri 200 agereranyije ariko avuga ko atahamya uwo mubare neza.

Ibyaranze uruzinduko rwa Rudahigwa mu Bubirigi mu 1949, 1955, 1958

Iyo usuye iyo nzu ndangamurage usangamo ibigendanye n’uruzinduko rwa Rudahigwa mu Bubiligi mu mwaka wa 1949 aho yaje aherekejwe n’abatware be batatu aribo Godefroid Kamuzinzi watwaraga Ubugoyi, Justin Gashugi watwaraga Buhanga-Ndara, hakaba na Michel Kayihura watwaraga Nyaruguru ndetse n’uwari umunyamabanga w’umwami Pascal Ngoga.

Mu imurikagurisha rya mbere iyi nzu ndangamurage ivuka hamuritswemo n
Mu imurikagurisha rya mbere iyi nzu ndangamurage ivuka hamuritswemo n’ubuzima aburabura babagamo abanyaburayi bakaza kubareba ari benshi nk’uko bareba inyamaswa

Singiza avuga ko icyo gihe urwo rugendo rwahinduye isura y’Abanyarwanda mu Bubirigi.

Ati “Aho ngaho ni ho Abanyarwanda batangiye guhindura isura uko babafataga mu Bubiligi, isura y’Abanyarwanda yatangiye kwinjira mu mitwe y’Ababiligi, imico baje berekana ndetse n’igihagararo cyabo cyatangazaga benshi. Abo batware bose usibye Pascal Ngoga, bose uko ari batatu n’umwami Rudahigwa bari abantu barebare bareshya na metero 2, iyo shusho yinjiye mu Babiligi ko Abanyarwanda ari abantu barebare bafite igihagararo.

Ikindi Dr Singiza avuga cyasigaye mu mitwe y’Ababiligi ni uko Abanyarwanda baje ari abantu bacisha macye, bavuga makeya, bakamenya kwanga umugayo, ngo hari ibyo abaturage bo mu bindi bihugu bakoraga bo bakanga kubikora, bavuga ko ari ikiziririrzwa.

Mu gihe abandi baturage bariraga aho babonye hose, ku Banyarwanda bo bariraga ahantu hiherereye.

Ibyo byaje gutsindagirwa na none n’urugendo rwo mu mwaka wa 1955, umwami yakoranye n’abandi batware barimo Mungarurire Pierre watwaraga Ubwanacyambwe, igikomangoma Etienne Rwigemera watwaraga Urukiga, no mu mwaka wa 1958 mu imurikagurisha rya Buruseli ubwo hari haje Abanyarwanda benshi b’intore ngo iyO mico bakomeje kuyigaragaza .

Abo na bo ngo ntibariraga aho babonye, ntibariraga hanze, ntibanywa bahagaze kandi bakanywera ahantu hateganyijwe. Dr Singiza avuga ko iyo mico n’ubu yakomeje ku Banyarwanda.

Ibijyanye n’indimi n’indirimbo gakondo z’Abanyarwanda

Mu nzu ndangamurage Africa Museum hari icyumba kirimo ibijyanye n’indirimbo n’indimi gakondo z’Abanyarwanda.

Jacky Maniacky inzobere mu ndimo ari mu itsinda ririmo gutegura isohoka ry
Jacky Maniacky inzobere mu ndimo ari mu itsinda ririmo gutegura isohoka ry’inkoranyamagambo y’Ikinyarwanda n’Igifaransa imaze imyaka 40 itegurwa.

Ni icyumba kirimo amafoto, amashusho ndetse n’ibisobanuro, harimo n’ibikoresho by’umuziki, byifashishwaga mu kuririmba no kubyina ku Banyarwanda.

Muri ibyo bikoresho harimo nk’ingoma z’amoko yose, amakondera, ibubura, ibibuguzo, inanga, iningiri n’amakondera arimo ibyiciro byinshi nk’insengo, umurangi ndetse n’ikanka.

Icyo cyumba kirimo n’abaririmbyi b’Abanyarwanda n’ibisobanuro ku bijyanye n’ibisakuzo, inyunguramagambo ku nka no ku mazina y’inka n’ibisobanuro ku bijyanye n’ururimi rw’Ikinyarwanda rurimo igicumbi “Ntu” bigaragaza ko Ikinyarwanda ari ururimi rw’abo bantu nk’uko bigenda bigaragazwa no kwitiranwa ku duce na tumwe tubarizwa muri Afurika yo hagati, Amajyepfo n’Iburasirazuba.

Aha urugero rutangwa ni uko mu Rwanda uhasanga agace kitwa Nyanza ukagasanga Kenya, Malawi ndetse na Uganda.

Amafoto, indirimbo na Filimi bijyanye n’u Rwanda

Mu nzu ndangamurage ya Africa Museum uyisuye ahasanga kandi amafoto atandukanye y’abantu barimo abategetse u Rwanda mu bihe bitandukanye, indirimbo zirimo imbyino gakondo zicurangishije ibikoresho gakondo nk’inanga, iningiri, ibinyuguri n’ibindi ndetse na filimi zafashwe zivuga ku bintu bimwe na rimwe birimo imigenzo yo mu muco nyarwanda, nko kwita izina, gushyingura, gukura ikiriyo n’iyindi.

Inyamaswa ziba mu Rwanda no muri Afurika zasizwe imiti ngo zikomeze kugaragara mu mwimerere

Muri Afurika Museum harimo inyamaswa zigaragara mu isura ya nyayo aho zasizwe imiti ngo zitangirika, kuko zizanwa hashize igihe kirekire.

Muri izo Nyamaswa harimo Inzovu, Intare, Imvubu, Isatura, Agasumbashyamba, inguge, ingagi, imbogo, igisamujyonjyo (Pangolin), Imbogo, impala, imparage, inzoka, ingona, ingwe, urusamagwe, imbwebwe, umuhari, akanyamasyo ndetse n’izindi.

Inzovu
Inzovu

Akarusho ku muntu utarabona izo nyamaswa iyo azibonye asanga zifite umubiri wazo w’umwimerere, ubwoya ndetse n’ibindi bice bitigeze byangirika kubera zibitswe mu buryo bwa gihanga butuma zitangirika.

Izo nyamaswa zigaragara muri iyo nzu ndangamurage harimo izakuwe mu Rwanda ndetse n’izakuwe mu bindi bice byo muri Afurika nka Tanzania, u Burundi na Repubulika Iharanira Demokarasi ya Congo.

Inzu ndangamurage ya Africa Museum iherereye mu nkengero z’umujyi wa Buruseli mu gace ka Tervuren ikaba iri mu nzu ndangamurage zikomeye ku isi, irimo ibisigazwa miliyoni 10 by’inyamaswa, amabuye y’agaciro ibihumbi 250, ibikoresho by’umuziki 8,000, ubushyinguro bw’amateka (Archives) 350, amakarita ibihumbi 20, ubwoko bunyuranye bw’ibiti ndetse n’ibikoresho bijyanye n’umuco karande.

Guido Gryseels, umuyobozi wa Africa Museum kuva 2002
Guido Gryseels, umuyobozi wa Africa Museum kuva 2002
Africa Museum
Africa Museum
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