Dore ahakomotse imvugo ngo “winshyiraho agahato”

Inyandiko yo mu biro bya Perezida wa Repubulika y’u Rwanda yakozwe mu mwaka wa 1999 ivuga ku bumwe bw’Abanyarwanda, igaragaza ibikorwa by’agahato byakozwe cyane cyane mu gihe cy’ubukoroni bw’Ababiligi, ku buryo na n’ubu byibukwa na benshi.

Mu mirimo y
Mu mirimo y’agahato yabagaho hari harimo no gukora imihanda

Hari bamwe mu bantu ubwira gukora ibyo badashaka ukumva baragusubije ngo "winshyiraho agahato, umugogoro, uburetwa, shiku, ubuhake", cyangwa ngo "umpaye akazi gakomeye".

Aya mazina yakoreshejwe cyane mu gihe cy’ubukoloni kuva mu 1916 ubwo Abadage bari batsinzwe intambara ya mbere y’isi (1914-1918), bagasimburwa n’Ababiligi bagejeje mu mwaka wa 1962.

Iyo nyandiko dukesha aya makuru igaragaza ko abakoloni b’Ababiligi basuzuguraga umwirabura bavuga ngo ‘ntashobora kwibwiriza icyamugirira akamaro ngo agikore, ngo ni umunebwe’, ndetse bakaba batarashakaga ko amafaranga yabo yateza imbere u Rwanda kuko bari bazi ko ari indagizo ya y’Umuryango w’Abibumbye (ONU).

Iyo nyandiko kandi ivuga ko ibyo bikorwa by’agahato, umuturage wese yumvaga imvune yabyo, akumva ububi bw’ako gahato, kabone n’ubwo kabaga kagamije kumufasha kubona ibimutunga nko guhinga imyumbati, ibijumba, n’ibindi.

Imirimo yitwa AKAZI (corvée/forced labour)

Akazi byari ibikorwa by’agahato bidahemberwa, byazanywe n’ubutegetsi bwite bw’Abazungu, bikaba byari bigamije gukoresha abaturage imihanda, gutera amashyamba (abasore 300 bagombaga gutera nibura hectare imwe y’inturusu ahagana mu mwaka wa 1930), bagombaga no kubaka inzu z’abategetsi no gutwara ibikoresho birimo ibiti n’amatafari, ndetse no gucukura imirwanyasuri.

Uburetwa

Uburetwa yari imirimo abaturage bakoreraga abategetsi biturutse ku isano umukire yabaga afitanye n’umukene, cyangwa iyo umutegetsi yabaga afitanye n’abo ategeka, ariko iyo mirimo ntigire ibihembo.

Imirimo y’uburetwa yabaga itandukanye n’ubuhake cyangwa akazi k’igihe cy’Abazungu, kuko yakorerwaga umutegetsi kuva na mbere y’umwaduko w’Abazungu.

Habaga harimo iyo guhinga, kubaka inzu z’ibwami n’iz’abatware, kurarira ingo zabo, gucana ibishyito, gusenya (gutashya inkwi), kuvoma, gukuka no guheka umwami, umutware cyangwa abana babo.

Uburetwa bivugwa ko bwadutse ku ngoma ya Kigeli IV Rwabugili, abandi bakavuga ko bwazanywe n’Abazungu, cyane ko iryo jambo ngo rikomoka ku giswahile "kuleta", cyangwa ku gifaransa "l’Etat".

Hari ibyiciro by’Abanyarwanda byashoboraga kugira uburenganzira bwo gucungura uburetwa, bagatanga amafaranga mu mwanya w’imirimo, aba bakaba bari abakozi ba Leta, abakozi batari ba nyakabyizi bakoreraga amasosiyete cyangwa abazungu.

Hari kandi n’abarimu ba gatigisimu, abanyeshuri bo mu cyiciro cya kabiri cy’amashuri abanza, abantu bakize bafite nibura inka icumi, ndetse n’abajya gupagasa mu mahanga bagata sheferi yabo nibura amezi icyenda mu mwaka.

Imirwanyasuri na yo yakorwaga mu mirimo y
Imirwanyasuri na yo yakorwaga mu mirimo y’agahato

SHIKU

Mu bwinshi bavugaga "amashiku", hakaba hari ahantu bahingaga ku gahato imirimo (ibipimo) yagenwe n’ubutegetsi bwa gikoloni, kandi igahingwamo imyaka yemejwe mu rwego rwo kurwanya inzara.

Shiku bisobanura umurimo wo guhinga ku gahato cyane cyane ibijumba n’imyumbati, bikaba bikomoka ku nshinga "gushikura", aho bahingishaga isuka bakurura n’ingufu ahantu h’umushike.

Shiku kandi ngo yitwaga "akajagari", bashaka kuvuga urusange rw’imirima yahingwagamo n’abantu benshi, ariko buri muntu akagira igihande cyangwa icyate cye. Icyo gihande cyari icy’umuntu wahingaga atari yasarura, kuko iyo yamaraga gusarura habaga aha susheferi.

UMUGOGORO

Umugogoro wari inka yatangwaga n’umuturage cyangwa umuryango, ikajya gukamirwa umuzungu (ndetse n’abamuherekeje), aho yabaga acumbitse ku nkambi.

Umugogoro byavugaga kandi igikorwa cyo gushyira umuzungu iyo nka ndetse n’ibindi biyiherekeza nk’inkoko, amagi, ibitoki n’ibindi bikomoka ku buhinzi n’ubworozi.

IKAWA

Aba mbere badukanye ikawa mu Rwanda bari Abapadiri bera b’abamisiyoneri bari bakeneye ikawa yo kunywa. Guhera mu mwaka wa 1903 ni bwo abo bapadiri batangije imirimo yo guhinga ikawa mu misiyoni ya Mibirizi mu karere ka Rusizi, nyuma ikawa yagiye ikwirakwira buhoro buhoro mu gihugu hose.

Ikawa y’u Rwanda yatangiye kwamamara cyane ahagana mu myaka ya 1925, aho byabaye itegeko ry’Abakoroni b’Ababiligi ko abaturage bagomba kuyihinga. Guhera mu myaka ya 1933/1934, ni bwo Abanyarwanda batangiye guhinga ikawa ku bwinshi, n’ubwo hari ababikoraga ku bushake buke kubera kutabibonamo inyungu.

UMUSORO

Kuva na mbere y’umwaduko w’Abazungu mu Rwanda hari hasanzweho icyo bitaga ikoro ryaturwaga umwami. Hari ikoro ryitwaga umuheto, aho abaturage batangaga amacumu, imyambi, imitana, imiheto, inkota, intorezo, amayugi, impindu, n’ibindi.

Habagaho ikoro ry’ibikomoka ku buhinzi ryitwaga "urutete" ryatangwaga buri mwaka, aho buri nzu cyangwa umuryango yatangaga ibiribwa bishobora guhunikwa nk’ibishyimbo byumye, amashaza, amasaka n’uburo.

Uretse ikoro ry’umuheto n’urutete, habagaho n’andi moko y’ikoro atavugwa amazina agamije guha umwami ibintu bitandukanye nko gutanga inka (n’iyayo), imishwi y’inkoko, intama n’ikimasa byo kuragura, abavumvu batangaga imitsama, abahigi baturiye ishyamba babazwaga ibijyanye n’umuhigo nk’impu z’ingwe n’inkomo, ababumbyi batangaga ibibindi, inkono, n’ibindi.

Ubwo abakoloni b’Abadage bari bageze mu Rwanda, bigeze mu mwaka wa 1912 batangiye gukoresha ibarura rusange rya mbere ry’abaturage, kugira ngo bamenye ingano y’umusoro buri muturage yajya atanga, ariko intambara ya mbere y’isi (1914-1918) ngo yatumye rihagarara.

Ubwo Ababiligi bari bamaze gusimbura Abadage ni bwo ibyitwaga ikoro byahinduriwe izina byitwa umusoro, aho buri musore cyangwa umugabo muzima yasabwaga amafaranga atatu n’urumiya (3.50 francs), ariko nyuma yaho umusoro wagiye utangwa hakurikijwe ubukungu bwa buri Teritwari.

Uko imyaka ishira umusoro wagiye wiyongera aho muri 1927 wari ugeze ku mafaranga arindwi n’urumiya (7.50 francs) kuri buri musore cyangwa umugabo, mu wa 1930 umusoro wageze ku mafaranga mirongo itatu (30 francs) kuri buri muntu buri mwaka.

UBUHAKE

Ubuhake bwabaga ari amasezerano azwi n’ubwo atari yanditswe, hagati ya shebuja (nyiri inka) n’umugaragu ushaka inka. Umuntu uhatswe yakoreraga shebuja imirimo inyuranye.

Amashyamba y
Amashyamba y’inturusu menshi yatewe mu gihe cy’ubukoloni

Ubuhake ngo bwari inzira y’umubano n’ubukungu Abanyarwanda bagenderagaho mbere y’umwaduko w’Abazungu, buranakomeza mu gihe cy’Abakoloni, ariko bugenda buhindura isura.

Abanditsi benshi baba Abera cyangwa Abanyarwanda, bagiye bitiranya ubuhake n’icyitwaga "féodalité/feodality" mu Burayi bwo mu binyejana bya 11-14 (Moyen Age), ariko hari n’abandi bavuze ko ubuhake atari kimwe na féodalité.

UBUKONDE

Mu majyaruguru y’igihugu (Rubavu - Nyabihu -Musanze - Burera) nta buhake bwari buhari ariko ngo habagaho ikimeze nka bwo, aho umukungu ufite ahantu hanini yayobokwaga n’abakeneye ubutaka, ibyo bikitwa “ubukonde”.

Umukonde yabaga afite abagererwa bamubereye mu butaka, bakabuhinga ariko bakagira imirimo bamukorera, kandi hakaba umugabane w’imyaka yeze bagomba kumuha.

Igihe cy’ubutegetsi bw’Ababiligi, hari Abanyarwanda boherejwe gutwara muri utwo turere tw’amajyaruguru, ubutaka babuha indi sura y’ubukonde, aho babushyiragamo abantu bishakiye. Bene ubwo bukonde hari ababwise "ubukonde politike".

Umukecuru witwa Mukamana Felicité wavutse mu mwaka wa 1941, yiyemerera ko ubwo yari afite imyaka nka 15 ngo yahinze shiku, atera inturusu akora n’imirwanyasuri ku misozi itandukanye y’iwabo wa nyinawabo mu Buriza (ni Bweramvura na Rulindo muri iki gihe).

Mukamana yagize ati “Iyo mirimo yose narayikoze, bambwiraga ko ari uguhinga ishiku, ariko n’inturusu n’ikawa narabiteye, ndetse nkora n’imirwanyasuri. Icyo gihe numvaga mu Buriza hatwarwa n’uwitwaga Rwubusisi”.

Ibitabo by’amateka bigaragaza ko iyo mirimo y’agahato yateye benshi guhunga igihugu, kuko kuva mu mwaka wa 1930 Abanyarwanda barenga 50,000 b’abasore n’abagabo basuhukiraga muri Uganda buri mwaka, ku buryo byageze mu mwaka wa 1959 hamaze guhunga abarenga 350,000. Abandi ibihumbi 35 bari baragiye muri Tanganyika ari yo Tanzania y’ubu.

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