Abakandida 1,214 barahatanira kuyobora USA : Ibintu bitanu bitangaje kuri aya matora

Leta Zunze Ubumwe z’Amerika (USA) ni cyo gihugu gikomeye kurusha ibindi ku isi, byaba mu bukungu, igisirikare, n’ibindi byinshi. Kuri uyu wa Kabiri tariki 03 Ugushyingo 2020, Abanyamerika baratora uzabayobora mu myaka ine iri imbere.

Umukuru w’icyo gihugu, uwo ari we wese, agira ingaruka ku buzima bw’abanyamerika n’abatuye isi muri rusange, ari na yo mpamvu ibiri buve mu matora y’umukuru w’igihugu kuri uyu wa kabiri bizagira ingaruka kuri buri wese.

Dore bimwe mu by’ingenzi ukwiye kumenya ku matora yo muri USA:

1.Amashyaka

Politiki yo muri USA iganzwa cyane n’amashyaka abiri ari yo iry’Abarepubulikani (Republicans) n’iry’Abademokarate (Democracts). Ari na yo mpamvu umukuru w’igihugu buri gihe ava muri rimwe muri aya mashyaka.

Ariko aya mashyaka si yo yonyine akorera muri icyo gihugu kuko hari andi mashyaka abarirwa mu majana harimo azwi cyane nka Libertarian Party, Green Party, Constitution Party na Party for Socialism and Liberation. Harimo kandi amashyaka aharanira inyungu z’ikintu runaka nka Legal Marijuana Now Party riharanira ko ibiyobyabwenge byemerwa cyane cyane urumogi. Nk’uko tuza kubibona mu kanya, amenshi muri aya mashyaka afite abakandida na bo bari guhatana mu matora y’umukuru w’igihugu.

2. Inteko itora (Electoral College)

N’ubwo abaturage barenga miliyoni 255 ari bo bagomba kwitabira amatora y’umukuru w’igihugu muri USA, mu by’ukuri abantu 538 bagize inteko itora ni bo bazahitamo uzaba Perezida. Uzaba perezida akaba agomba kugira byibuze amajwi 270 muri aya 538.

Buri Leta muri 50 zigize USA igenerwa umubare w’abantu bagomba kuyihagararira muri iyi nteko itora hashingiwe ku mubare w’abantu batuye iyo Leta. Ni ukuvuga ko abaturage basanzwe baba barimo gutora ku rwego rwa Leta yabo kugira ngo bahe umukandida runaka amajwi ahagije y’abazamuhagararira mu nteko itora. Ni na yo mpamvu umukandida ashobora kugira amajwi menshi y’abaturage bamutoye (popular vote) ariko ntagire amajwi ahagije y’abamuhagarariye mu nteko itora. Ibi ni byo byabaye kuri Hillary Clinton mu mwaka wa 2016, ubwo yatsindwaga na Donald Trump.

Ikindi ni uko umukandida ugize amajwi menshi muri Leta ahita ahabwa amajwi yose y’abahagarariye iyo Leta muri ya nteko itora.

3. Hari Leta zifite ingufu kurusha izindi

Nyinshi muri Leta zigize USA ziba zifite ishyaka runaka zizwiho gushyigikira. Ni na yo mpamvu muri Leta 50 zigize icyo gihugu, inkeya ari zo zihabwa umwanya munini iyo abakandida barimo kwiyamamaza kuko zo ziba zizwiho kuba zashyigikira umukandida umwe cyangwa uwundi. Izo Leta zizwi nka «swing states ».

Zimwe muri zo harimo Florida na Ohio, mu gihe Arizona na Texas zari zisanzwe ari iz’Abarepubulikani, mu matora yo muri uyu mwaka na zo zirimo guhatanirwa n’abakandida bombi. Izindi Leta zishobora kubogamira ku Barepubulikani cyangwa Abademokarate ni Georgia, Iowa, Michigan, Minnesota, Nevada, New Hampshire, North Carolina, Pennsylvania na Wisconsin.

4. Ntabwo harimo gutorwa umukuru w’igihugu gusa

N’ubwo hakomeje kuvugwa amatora y’umukuru w’igihugu muri USA, ntabwo ari bo bategetsi bonyine barimo gutorwa. Abaturage ba Amerika barimo kandi gutora abagize inteko ishinga amategeko, imitwe yombi (Abadepite n’Abasenateri).

Imyanya yose uko ari 435 y’Abadepite irimo guhatanirwa, mu gihe muri Sena harimo guhatanirwa imyanya 33. Abademokarate barimo gushaka kugira abadepite benshi n’abasenateri benshi kugira ngo mu gihe perezida Donald Trump yakongera gutorwa bazabe bafite ubushobozi bwo gusubiza inyuma bimwe mu byemezo yafata.

5. Abakandida 1,214

Nk’uko twari tumaze kubivuga abakandida bahagarariye Abademokarate n’Abarepubulikani ni bo barimo kuvugwa cyane muri aya matora y’umukuru w’igihugu, ariko mu by’ukuri aya matora arimo abakandida 1,214 bahatanira umwanya wa Perezida.

Harimo abakandida bahagarariye ariya mashyaka yandi twavuze nka Jo Jorgensen uhagarariye ishyaka Libertarian Party, Howie Hawkins uhagararriye Green Party, Gloria La Riva uhagarariye Socialism and Liberation Party, n’abakandida bigenga, barimo icyamamare Kanye West.

Usibye Jo Jorgensen wabashije kwiyandikisha kuri lisiti y’itora muri Leta 50 zose zigize USA, abandi bakandida bagiye banditse kuri lisiti y’itora muri Leta zimwe mu gihe batagaragara kuri lisiti yo mu zindi.

Amategeko agenga itora aho muri Amerika kandi ateganya ko umukandida utagaragara kuri lisiti y’itora, ashobora gusaba abamushyigikiye kwandika izina rye ku rupapuro rw’itora bemeza ko ari we bahaye ijwi ryabo (write-in candidate).

Hifashishijwe BBC & Wikipedia

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