Ukwakira 1990, ukwezi kutazava mu mitwe ya benshi

Ukwezi k’Ukwakira 1990, kwasigiye benshi ibikomere, ariko kunaba intangiriro yo kubohora u Rwanda, ubwo Inkotanyi zagabaga igitero cyo ku itariki 01 Ukwakira.

Hari n
Hari n’abatajya bibagirwa ibyababayeho n’amatariki byabereyeho

Benshi mu bari bafite imyaka iri hejuru ya 15 ku babaga mu Rwanda (nanjye ndimo), bari bazi amateka y’Abanyarwanda bahunze ubwicanyi bwo mu 1959 bagahungira mu bihugu by’abaturanyi, hashize igihe bashinga Umuryango FPR-Inkotanyi (1987), waje ndetse no gushyiraho ingabo zatangije urugamba rwo kubohora u Rwanda ku itariki 01 Ukwakira 1990.

Hagati y’umwaka wa 1989 n’umwaka wa 1990, imbere mu gihugu hari abantu bari baramaze kumenya gahunda z’Umuryango FPR-Inkotanyi washinzwe mu 1987 ushyizweho n’Abanyarwanda (biganjemo Abatutsi) bari barahunze ubwicanyi bwo mu 1959, ariko urugamba rwo kubohora igihugu benshi barumenye rumaze iminsi ibiri rutangiye, ku itariki 02 Ukwakira 1990 nyuma y’imyaka isaga 30 mu butegetsi bw’igitugu bwashyiraga imbere ivangura no kwica abatavuga rumwe na bwo.

Njye numvise ko Inkotanyi zateye nkumva bidashoboka, ariko naje kubisobanukirwa byimazeyo Inkotanyi zimaze gushyiraho Radio Muhabura ku itariki 20 Gicurasi 1991, kuko ari yo yatangaga amakuru y’urugamba nyayo ikanavuga ibikorwa by’ubugizi bwa nabi abantu bakorerwaga muri gereza no mu bice bitandukanye by’u Rwanda.

Urugamba rw’Inkotanyi rwatangiriye i Kagitumba ku itariki 01 Ukwakira 1990 ahahoze ari muri Perefegitura ya Byumba (Akarere ka Nyagatare), nyuma y’iminsi ine Leta ya Juvenal Habyarimana ishyira abasirikare mu mihanda barara barasa mu kirere, bukeye tariki 05 Ukwakira bazinduka bata muri yombi abaturage biganjemo Abatutsi cyane cyane mu Mujyi wa Kigali, babashinja ko ari bo baraye barasa, n’utari uzi uko imbunda isa yafunzwe abeshyerwa kurasa cyangwa ko abitse amasasu y’Inkotanyi.

Guta abantu muri yombi byarakomeje no mu myaka yakurikiyeho, abantu bakomeza gutotezwa no kubuzwa uburyo kugeza muri Mata 1994 hakorwa Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi.

Ndibuka ubwo twajyaga gushyingura Nyogokuru wanjye wari urwariye iwacu akitaba Imana mu matariki ya nyuma y’Ukwakira, twageze ku Kimisagara urenze ku ruganda rutunganya amazi rwa Electrogaz tugenda tugana ku irimbi, abasirikare baje badukurikiye bahagarika imodoka yari irimo umurambo badutegeka kuyifungura ngo barebe ko “tutari inyenzi” zijyanye imbunda ku musozi wa Kigali (Mon Kigali).

Icyo gihe haje abantu benshi baradushungera, tubwira abasirikare ko tugiye gushyingura umukecuru baranga bakomeze gutsimbarara ngo tuyifungure, tubabwira ko nta nyundo ifungura isanduku dufite, umwe muri bo atangira gukoresha icyuma cyo ku mbunda ngo akuremo imisumari, ariko abona twese twashobewe, ku bw’amahirwe baratureka tujya ku irimbi turashyingura ariko baduhagarikiye.

Abasirikare bataga muri yombi uwo babonye wese batitaye ku myaka y’umuntu, ari abato n’abakuru ariko cyane cyane ab’igitsina gabo bafite amarangamuntu yanditseho Tutsi, bashinjwa ko bafitanye isano n’amasasu yo mu ijoro ryo kuwa 04 Ukwakira, nyamara hari n’abatawe muri yombi mbere yaho bashinjwa ko “babitse imifuka y’amasasu y’inyenzi mu ngo zabo”.

Kuva tariki ya 1 Ukwakira 1990, Inkotanyize zitangije urugamba rwo kubohora igihugu, benshi mu bari mu Rwanda batangiye gutotezwa bidasanzwe, bamwe bagafungwa abandi bakicwa
Kuva tariki ya 1 Ukwakira 1990, Inkotanyize zitangije urugamba rwo kubohora igihugu, benshi mu bari mu Rwanda batangiye gutotezwa bidasanzwe, bamwe bagafungwa abandi bakicwa

Ubuhamya bwa Kayitana

Umusaza uri mu kigero cy’imyaka 80 utarifuje ko amazina ye ashyirwa ahagaragara, twahisemo kwita Kayitana, atuye ku Muhima mu Mujyi wa Kigali ari naho yari atuye mu 1990.

Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi yahitanye babiri mu bana be batandatu, ubu abana n’umugore we n’abana babiri, abandi babiri barubatse.

Inkotanyi zitera u Rwanda, kwa Kayitana bari bafite umushyitsi mwene wabo wakoraga akazi k’ubushoferi ajya mu bihugu by’ibituranyi ariko cyane cyane muri Uganda. Hashize iminsi ibiri Inkotanyi ziteye ku itariki 03 Ukwakira, Kayitana yagiye kubona abona uwari konseye wa Muhima (Kamatamu Euphrasie) azanjye n’abantu mu rugo rwe bamubwira ko baje gushaka “inyenzi” ihari yavuye muri Uganda.

Mu buhamya bwa Kayitana aragira ati “Uwo mushyitsi, yari umwana wa mukuru wanjye, yari amaze iminsi mike aje kudusura, ariko umunsi baza kumushaka yari yagiye gusura Papa aho yabaga muri Kigali Ngali, ubwo konseye n’abo bagabo bamaze gusanga ntawuhari bantegeka ko tugomba kujyana nkabereka aho ari…

Ariko mbere yo kunjyana babanje kumanukana tujya kwa Muramu wanjye twari duturanye, bagiye kureba ko wa mushyitsi atari ho ari, bahageze basanga ntawuhari na bo barabanza babatera hejuru basaka ibintu byose babonye ngo barimo gushaka amasasu y’inyenzi nk’uko bari babigenje iwanjye…

Hashize akanya banyurije imodoka y’ikamyoneti y’umweru y’ibirahure byijimye, tugeze imbere gato mba mbonye wa mushyitsi, mpita mbambwira nti dore wawundi mwariho mumbaza nguriya, na we baba bamutaye muri yombi twembi baratujyana batugeza ahahoze hari ibiro bya perezida imbere ya Banki ya Kigali…

Tuhageze badushyize mu nzu nini itarimo ibintu batwicaza hasi, ubundi batangira kuduhata ibibazo, hanze hari abasirikare benshi bafite imbunda bagenda bazenguruka ya nzu batureba aho twicaye. Njye na wa mushyitsi ni twe twahageze bwa mbere ariko bakomeje kugenda bazana abandi urusorongo tugera mu bantu nka 20, ubwo uwahageraga wese yahatwaga ibibazo batubwira ko turi inyenzi kandi ko tugomba kubyemera …

Twiriwe aho duhatwa ibibazo batubaza imyirondoro, bakadutegeka kwemera ko tutari abantu nk’abandi, ko akacu kashobotse. Muri iyo nzu twahageze mbere ya saa sita bahatuvana ahagana saa kumi z’umugoroba, batujyanye muri minibisi turenga 20 kuri sitasiyo ya Police i Gikondo baradufunga, ariko ubwo ni ko bakomezaga no gufata abandi hirya no hino bakajya kubafungira muri sitade abandi muri gereza…

I Gikondo twahamaze iminsi itanu tutarya, tutanywa nta no gukaraba, tumerewe nabi cyane. Hari n’abo bagendaga batwara ntibagaruke, njyewe nkeka ko hari abo bahiciraga kuko aho twari dufungiye wajyaga kumva ukumva haje imodoka bakayinagamo ibintu wumva ko biremereye nk’imibiri y’abantu bapfuye…

Hashize iminsi itanu Alphonse Nkubito wari Umushinjacyaha wa Repubulika yaje kutureba aho twari dufungiye, abonye ukuntu twabaye nabi cyane abwira abapolisi ko bagomba kujya kudufungira ahantu habigenewe kugira ngo tujye tubona n’icyo kurya, nuko bamaze kudukorera amadosiye adushinja ibyo tutazi batwuriza imodoka batujyana kuri gereza nkuru ya 1930 tuhageze dusangamo abandi benshi tuziranye, barimo inshuti, abaturanyi na bene wacu…

Njyewe muri gereza nasanzemo abana ba mukuru wanjye babiri, umwe yari umwarimu i Gitarama, undi yari umushoferi ndibuka ko nkihagera meze nabi cyane kubera inzara, uwakoraga muri ORINFOR yampaye igiceri cya 50frw ngura igikoma cyatekwaga n’abanyururu basanzwe, bari barahakiriye cyane kuko batekaga igikoma bakakitugurishaho igikombe kimwe amafaranga 100, babaga bambaye amataburiya afite imifuka imbere, ubona ko huzuyemo ibifaranga.

Twakomeje kubaho gutyo dutunzwe n’igikoma kitagira isukari kimeze nk’amazi, hari n’abo cyarwazaga mu nda, hashize iminsi badutandukanya n’abandi banyururu, bafata igice basengeragamo nka kiliziya bashyiramo ikibambasi kihagabanyamo kabiri kugira ngo tutazivanga n’abandi banyururu…

Twabaye muri ubwo buzima nta kugemurirwa, nta gusurwa, hashize iminsi haza kuza abacamanza kudukorera indi myirondoro, ndibuka ko njyewe nari narababeshye ko ndi umugande ngira ngo ndebe byibuze ko bazanshyikiriza ambasade ya Uganda, kuko nibwiraga ko batari kugirira nabi umunyamahanga. Ibyo ariko ntacyo byatanze kuko n’ubundi nakomeje gufungwa, abo basangaga ari abanyamahanga na bo babajyanaga ukwabo…

Bakomeje kujya bagaruka bafite urutonde ruriho amazina yacu, bakatubwira ngo inyenzi zose zifungiye hano nimuze mujye kwitaba, ubwo bakatujyana mu biro byakoreragamo abacamanza kuri gereza bakatubwira ngo ibyacu bigiye kurangira, bamwe bakabatwara ntibagaruke, abandi tugasubira muri gereza bityo bityo, njye narekuwe ku itariki 23 Werurwe 1991 mpamaze amezi atanu n’iminsi, ariko wa mushyitsi sinzi igihe bamurekuriye, gusa icyo namenye ni uko nawe yaje kurekurwa agasubira muri Uganda ariko sinongeye kumenya amakuru ye. Nkeka ko ashobora kuba yaragiye mu Nkotanyi akagwa ku rugamba cyangwa se akaba yarishwe muri Jenoside”.

Muzehe Kayitana yafungiwe muri Gereza ya Nyarugenge (1930), amezi arenga atanu
Muzehe Kayitana yafungiwe muri Gereza ya Nyarugenge (1930), amezi arenga atanu

Abo bana Kayitana yarabareye se wabo, umwe yaje kujya mu nkotanyi ndetse abasha no kurangiza urugamba, ariko mukuru we yaje kwitaba Imana mu 1998 aho yari yaragiye mu Bubiligi nyuma yo gufungurwa.

Mu buhamya bwa Kayitana, akomeza agira ati “Baturekura baratubwiye ngo ngaho nimusubire iwanyu ariko mwikuremo ubwirasi, ngo mugende mwige kubana n’abandi, baturekura batyo ariko ubuzima bwakurikiyeho bwari bubi cyane kuko n’ubundi bakomeje kugaruka bakadushyiraho iterabwoba ndetse n’igihe narinkiri muri gereza, hari abantu bajyaga baza iwanjye gutesha umutwe umuryango wanjye bavuga ngo mu nzu harimo imifuka ibiri irimo amasusu, abandi bakarara batera amabuye hejuru y’inzu…

Umugore wanjye we yahuye n’akaga gakomeye kuko yari afite umwana w’uruhinja wavutse ndi muri gereza, atazi n’amakuru yanjye kuko konseye yaje kugaruka mu rugo rwanjye amubeshya ko napfuye, naje no kumenya ko urwandiko nigeze kumuha ngo arunzanire mu rugo atigeze arutanga, ntungurwa no kurubona nyuma ya Jenoside muri Nyakanga 1994, icyo gihe nari ngiye gushaka ibyangombwa kuri segiteri ya Muhima yari iyobowe n’umugabo twari twarafunganywe mu bo bitaga ibyitso by’inyenzi…

Nageze kuri segiteri ansaba ko mufasha gutunganya ibiro bye maze turebye mu mpapuro zari mu kabati ka konseye Kamatamu wari warahungiye muri Zaire kubera uruhare yagize muri Jenoside, mbona nguye kuri ya baruwa nandikiye umugore wanjye ntiyamugeraho. Ntabwo rwari urwandiko rusanzwe, ahubwo bwari nk’ubuhamya bari badutegetse kwandikira abo mu miryango yacu ngo tubabwire ko “dufunzwe tuzira ko turi inyenzi”.

Umugore wa Kayitana na we yibuka neza uburyo yabujijwe epfo na ruguru igihe umugabo we yari afunze kuko inshuro nyinshi konseye Kamatamu yakomeje kumushyiraho iterabwoba, ndetse aza no kumutegeka kwirukana abantu bose bakodeshaga amazu yabo avuga ko ari inyenzi bacumbikiye, agamije kugira ngo bazicwe n’inzara igihe Kayitana yari akiri muri gereza, dore ko n’inshuro zose umugore we yagerageje kumusura batigeze bamumuha.

Umugore wa Kayitana ati “Umunsi umwe nagiyeyo mpasanga abandi bantu benshi baje gusura abantu babo, noneho abashinzwe kuzana abanyururu ngo babonane n’ababo baratubwira ngo abaje gusura inyenzi nimujye ku ruhande, abaje gusura abanyururu basanzwe aba ari bo bajya ku murongo binjire, twebwe hashize akanya baratubwira ngo nidutange amafaranga baraza kuyabagezaho cyangwa tuvuge ibyo dushaka ko babagurira.

Ibyo babidukoze kenshi ariko amafaranga bayishyiriraga mu mifuka yabo, ndetse nyuma konseye yaje no kumbwira ko umugabo wanjye yapfuye ncika intege zo gusubirayo…

Nyuma ni bwo hano haje gucumbika umuntu wari umupolisi hashize iminsi aza kumbwira ko yabonye umugabo wanjye muri gereza ariko nta kintu nashoboraga kuba namutuma ngo amushyire kuko na we byari kumukoraho, nongeye kumubona nyuma y’amezi atanu arekuwe”.

Abantu barafunzwe, amezi arashira andi arataha, nyuma itangazamakuru ritangiye gutinyuka kwisanzura mu 1991, ryagerageje kubyandikaho ritabariza abafunze, cyane cyane ikinyamakuru kitwaga ‘Kanguka’ cyandikwaga na Rwabukwisi Ravy na Karinganire Charles bishwe muri Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi.

Leta ya Habyarimana imaze kubona ko amahanga na yo atangiye kumenya ko hari abaturage bafunzwe ku maherere, ni bwo yatangiye kugenda irekura bake bake, abandi bakekwagaho gukorana n’inkotanyi kubera amasano bafitanye n’abagiye ku rugamba bagumamo kimwe n’abari bafite bene wabo bagiye kwiga cyangwa gukora mu mahanga.

Abantu bakomeje kubuzwa epfo na ruguru mu myaka yakurikiyeho bazizwa ubwoko, ingo zabo zigaterwamo ibisasu, bikozwe n’abasirikare ba leta bikitirirwa abajura cyangwa abagizi ba nabi batazwi.

Hari mukuru wanjye twakurikiranaga Gasana Gabin wishwe muri Jenoside, ndibuka mu 1991 mu rugo bamutumye amata, avuye kuyazana mu kajerekani k’umweru ahura n’abajandarume batatu baramuhagarika, bamubaza ibyo atwaye ababwira ko ari amata, banga kubyemera baramubwira ngo namene hasi barebe, undi arafungura arabereka ati “ese ntimubona ko ari amata?”

Bamutegetse kuyamena aranga batangira kumukubita ibibuno by’imbunda, akingisha amaboko arakomereka, ubwo kandi ni ko abantu babaga bashungereye. Mukuru wanjye yigaga Kung-Fu akunda siporo cyane kandi ubona ko ari umusore, umujinya umwishe abuze icyo akora arababwira ati “Simwe munkubise, nkubiswe n’iyo myenda mwambaye”.

Abajandarume bahise bahamagara imodoka yabo ya Fiat IVECO bajya kumufungira kuri kasho ya Muhima, ku bw’amahirwe haza guca umugabo wari inshuti y’undi mukuru wanjye (Gasana Gustave na we wishwe muri Jenoside), bakoranaga kuri ambasade y’Ababiligi, ageze hafi y’aho kasho yari yubatse (ubu hasigaye hari parikingi y’amabisi) abona Gabin mu idirishya, ahita ajya kuri ambasade abibwira Gustave ati “mbonye murumuna wawe bamufunze”, maze basaba ambasade ijya kumuvuganira baramufungura.

Ako kaga karakomeje kaba kuri benshi kugeza muri Mata 1994, nyuma y’ihanurwa ry’indege ya Habyarimana bikozwe n’agatsiko k’abahezanguni bo muri Guverinoma ye batashakaga ko ashyira umukono ku masezerano ya Arusha (Tanzania) yo gusaranganya ubuyobozi n’Inkotanyi n’andi mashyaka ataravugaga rumwe na MRND, ishyaka rya Habyarimana.

Ihanurwa ry’indege mu ijoro ryo kuwa 06 Mata 1994 ryahise rikurikirwa no gushyira mu bikorwa Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi, mu kanya nk’ako guhumbya hafi igihugu cyose cyari cyamaze kugeramo ubwicanyi, mu mezi atatu gusa hicwa Abatutsi basaga miliyoni imwe n’Abahutu batavugaga rumwe n’ubutegetsi.

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