Umuvuduko w’iterambere ry’u Rwanda ukwiye kuba isomo kuri Afurika- The Patriotic Vanguard

J Boima Rogers, Impuguke mu itangazamakuru ya Oxford mu Bwongereza yandikira Ikinyamakuru “The Patriotic Vanguard”, isanga umwihariko wa demokarasi y’u Rwanda ukwiye kuba urugero ibindi bihugu by’Afurika byafatiraho mu kwigobotora “demokarasi nzungu”.

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U Rwanda ruri kwihuta mu iterambere

Mu nkuru ndende yasohoye mu ijoro ryo kuri uyu wa 16 Nyakanga 2017, ikubiyemo ubushakashatsi yakoze ku miyoborere y’u Rwanda, Boima atangazwa n’intambwe u Rwanda rumaze gutera nyuma ya Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi yarusize ari umuyonga.

Agira ati “Ibipimo by’ubukungu n’imibereho y’abaturage bigaragaraza ko u Rwanda rurenze kure ibindi bihugu by’Afurika ndetse na byinshi ku isi.”

Akomeza avuga ko, nubwo hari abavuga ko hari icyuho mu nzira ya demokarasi, asanga uko byagenda kose Afurika ikwiye kwigira ku budashyikirwa by’u Rwanda kugira ngo yigobotore imiyoborere yarazwe n’abazungu ikomeje kuyiteza ibibazo.

Ati “Ndifashisha urugero rw’u Rwanda kuko imiyoborere y’Afurika, Aziya, Amerika na Ositiraliya yaremwe na ba mpatsibihugu b’Uburayi kandi ibihugu byinshi by’Afurika na Aziya muri iki gihe ni bwo birimo gushaka uko bwayigobotora.”

Avuga ko Uburayi bwamaze ibisekuru mu ntambara zitandukanye n’imishyikirano ngo bushobore kubaka ibihugu byabwo, nyamara ikindi gice gisigaye cy’isi ngo cyabaye nk’ikifatiwe na bwo (Uburayi), maze cyose kiyoborwa mu nyungu z’Uburayi.

Ibi byaje kugirwa ihame n’Inama yaberey i Berlin mu Budage mu 1884 yagabanyije ibihugu by’Uburayi ibice bitandukanye by’isi. Mu myaka hagati 1930 na 1970 ni bwo ibyinshi mu bihugu by’Afurika n’Aziya byahawe ubwigenge, ariko bibuhabwa nta myiteguro ihagije yo kwiyobora.

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Mu nama y’i Berlin mu 1884 ibihugu by’u Burayi byigabanyije Afurika (Photo: Internet)

Kuva icyo gihe, byahise bitangira guhura n’uruhuri rw’ibibazo ari na ko bigenda bishaka uburyo bwabyikuramo bikiteza imbere.
Imibare ifatika y’intambwe ntagereranywa u Rwanda rwateye

Boima, aha ni ho ahera avuga ko u Rwanda ari urugero rutangaje ibindi bihugu by’Afurika bikwiye kwigiraho. Mu gihe u Rwanda rwasaga n’urukiri umuyonga rugisohoka muri Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi mu 1994, uyu munsi umusaruro mbumbe warwo umaze kwikuba ishuro zirenga 10.

Mu 1994, umusaruro mbumbe w’u Rwanda wari miliyobi 573 n’ibihumbi 636 na 370$ ariko imibare ya Banki y’Isi igaragaza ko umwaka wa 2016 warangiye ugeze kuri miliyari 8 na miliyoni 376$.

Ni mu gihe kuva mu 2001 kugeza muri 2015 ubukungu bw’u Rwanda bwagiye bwiyongera ku kigero cya 8%. Ibi bikaba byaratumye, umusaruro mbumbe w’umuturage uva ku madolari 575 mu 1995 ubu ukaba ugeze ku madolari 1,170.

Uku kuzamuka kwihishe k’ubukungu bw’u Rwanda gufitanye isano n’iterambere ry’inzego zitandukanye mu gihugu.

Nko kugeza muri 2014, ibyoherezwa mu mahanga byagiye bizamuka buri mwaka ku kigero cya 20%. Mu gihe u Rwanda muri 2010 rwinjije miliyoni 201.6 z’amadolari, muri 2016 rwayakubye kabiri rwinjiza 404$.

Ibi bijyana no kuba u Rwanda rwita cyane ku mibereho y’abarutuye kuko igice kinini cy’ingengo y’imari usanga kigendera mu buzima n’uburezi.

Nko muri 2011, ubuzima bwihariye 24% by’ingengo y’imari mu gihe uburezi bwari bwahawe 17% bigatuma bugera ku bipimo mpuzamahanga by’uburezi mu mashuri abanza.

Imibare ya Banki y’Isi kandi igaragaza ko icyizere cyo kubaho cy’Umunyarwanda cyazamutse kikaba kigeze ku myaka 68 mu gihe 1994 cyari kiri munsi y’imyaka 40. Impfu z’abana bapfa bavuka byavuye kuri 230/1000 mu 1998 none ubu ziri 50 ku gihumbi.

Impfu z’abana bo munsi y’imyaka itanu na zo zavuye ku 120/1000 mu 1988 zigera kuri 40/1000 muri 2012. Hiyongeraho ko u Rwanda ruyoboye ibindi bihugu by’isi mu kugira umubare munini w’abagore mu Nteko Ishinga Amategeko kuko bafite ijanisha rya 64%.

Byose bituruka ku buyobozi bwiza bwa Perezida Kagame

JP Boima akomeza avuga ko ibi bigwi byose u Rwanda rubikesha kugira ubuyobozi bufite icyerekezo, bwicara bugategura ibikorwa by’iterambere rirambye kandi bugaha abaturage uruhare mu bibakorerwa.

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Abaturage bafata iyambere mu iterambere ryabo

Agaruka ku kuba ingufu nyinshi zarashyizwe mu kubaka ibikorwa remezo, aho ubuyobozi bw’u Rwanda ngo bwashyizeho imirongo migari igenderwaho mu kubaka ubukungu n’iterambere ry’umuryango, ndetse bugashyiraho n’uburyo bwo kugenzura ko koko byagezweho.

Avuga ko gushyira iterambere mu biganza byarwo byabaye inzira ndende kuko rwahisemo gufata ingamba, gutegura ibikorwa n’uko bizagerwaho aho gushyira ubuzima bw’igihugu mu banyamahanga ngo bajye barukorera byose batange raporo.

Agira ati “Guverinoma y’u Rwanda yahisemo guha umuturage uruhare mu kugena ibikorwa by’iterambere kandi akagira uruhare mu buryo bwose mu ishyirwa mu bikorwa ryabyo.”

Ni icyemezo cyasaga n’igishaririye kuko ba mpatse ibihugu batabibonye neza kuko ubundi politiki zabo zitanga cyane ku nyungu z’ibihugu byabo aho kwita ku mibereho y’Umunyarwanda.

Boima atanga urugero ku cyemezo u Rwanda rwafashe cyo guca imyambaro ya caguwa rugira ngo ruteze imbere kandi rurengere inganda zo mu Rwanda zikora imyambaro.

Byatumye America ivuga ko binyuranye n’amasezerano y’ubucuruzi ifitanye n’ibihugu by’Afurika mu kubiteza imbere no kubikuriraho imisoro ku bicuruzwa byoherezayo (AGOA), ndetse inavuga ko niba rutisubiyeho izarusezerera muri uwo muryango.

Nyuma yo kubivuga, Perezida Kagame yavuze ko u Rwanda rudateze kwisubiraho kuri icyo cyemezo ngo kuko “Abanyarwanda ari bo bagomba kwihitiramo uko babaho n’ikibateza imbere aho guhitirwamo n’abandi.”

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u Rwanda rwahagaritse caguwa kugira ngo ruzamure inganda zikorera mu gihugu

Ibanga rindi rikomeye mu iterambere ry’u Rwanda ni uguhashya ruswa ndetse n’imikorere inoze mu nzego za Leta.

Umuryango Transparency International muri uyu mwaka wa 2017 washyize u Rwanda ku mwanya wa gatatu muri Afurika mu bihugu birangwamo ruswa nkeya.

Guverinoma kandi yanashyizeho amategeko yorohereza abarusura, abashoramari ndetse n’imiryango mpuzamahanga kugera mu Rwanda no kurukoreramo.

Boima ati “Kuri uyu mugabane ufatwa nk’uwananiwe byose (failed) ndetse n’imishinga myinshi usanga itangirizwaho inanirwa itaragera ku ntego, u Rwanda ruhagaze neza muri byose.”

Avuga ko ingero ari nyinshi kandi zifatika kuko nko muri 2016/2017 Urugaga rw’Isi rw’Ubukungu (WEF) yashyize u Rwanda ku mwanya wa 52 ku isi mu bihugu birimo gutera imbere cyane mu bukungu.

Muri Afurika rwaje inyuma y’Ibirwa bya Maurice n’Afurika y’Epfo gusa. Raporo ya Banki y’Isi ya 2017, na yo yashyize u Rwanda ku mwanya wa 58 ku isi mu kureshya no korohereza abashoramari.

Ni mu gihe ari urwa kabiri muri Afurika nyuma y’Ibirwa bya Maurice. Byongeye kandi rwashyizwe ku mwanya wa kane ku isi mu kubarura no kwandika imitungo y’abanyagihugu.

Ibyo u Rwanda rumaze kugeraho bikomoka ku bintu bitatu by’ingenzi

Iterambere ry’u Rwanda ahanini rigenda rikomoka ku buhanga mu kureshya abashoramari, ba mukerarugendo ndetse no ku gukoresha neza inkunga ruhabwa.

Muri 2005, Ishoramari ry’Abanyamahanga mu Rwanda (FDI) ryabarirwaga munsi ya 5% mu bukungu bw’igihugu, nyamara muri 2015 ryari rimaze kugera kuri 24%. Ni igipimo kiri hejuru ho hagati ya 8-10% ugereranyije n’ibindi bihugu bya EAC.

Ishoramari ry’abanyamahanga mu Rwanda muri 2015 ryari miliyoni 320$, bingana na 4% by’ubukungu mbumbe bw’u Rwanda.

Boima akavuga ko ari mibare usanga iri hejuru ugereranyije n’ibindi bihugu byo muri Afurika yo munsi y’Ubutayu bwa Sahara, ndetse ikaba inasumbye iy’ibihugu byo mu karere nka Uganda, Tanzaniya na Kenya.

Icyiza muri iri shoramara ry’abanyamahanga mu Rwanda ni uko hejuru ya 40% by’abashora imari mu Rwanda ari abaturuka mu bindi bihugu by’Afurika, bisobanura ko ibindi bihugu by’Afurika bibona u Rwanda nk’igihugu cyiza ushobora gushoramo imari ukizera umutekano w’ibikorwa byawe.

Umutekano uri mu biha isura nziza u Rwanda bigatuma umubare wa ba mukerarugendo wiyongera.

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Bimwe mu byazamuye u Rwanda harimo n’ubukerarugendo

Ibihugu bitera inkunga u Rwanda, na byo byakunze kugaragaza kugirira icyizere u Rwanda kuko ruzikoresha neza kandi mu mishinga irambye.

Afurika ikwiye gukura isomo ku Rwanda

Boima akomeza avuga ko imishinga y’itermabere ry’Afurika ikwiye kwigira byinshi ku Rwanda kuko nyuma y’uko Afurika ihawe ubwigenge, imyinshi mu mishinga y’iterambere yaransinziriye.

Nyamara, icyerekezo cy’u Rwanda, igenamigambi ndetse gushyira mu biganza by’abanyagihugu iterambere ryabo, ni indangagaciro ibihugu by’Afurika byinshi bikwiye kwigira ku buyobozi bwa Perezida Kagame.

Mu gihe ibihugu byinshi bifite ibifite amabuye y’agaciro n’ubundi bukungu bushingiye ku mutungo kamere, iyo ubirebye usanga byarasigaye inyuma mu itermbere.

Guverinoma nyinshi zabaye za rusahurira mu nduru, ikimenyane na ruswa mu gutanga akazi birimakazwa aho gushingira ku bushobozi.

Ibi ugasanga bikumira abaturage kuri serivisi bakagombye kuba bafitiye uburenganzira ndetse n’abashoramari bifuzaga gushora imari yabo bagahora basiragizwa.

Nk’uko twabigarutseho, usanga hari abirirwa banenga urugero rw’u Rwanda ngo nta demokarasi irimo, nyamara, ubwisanzure mu matora, mu itanganzamakuru no mu butabera ni bwo bufungurira imiryango iterambere mu by’ubukungu.

Ibindi bihugu by’Afurika nka Cape Verde, Ibirwa bya Mauric na Botswana byagiye bigaragaza kugira imiyoborere myinza, ikigero kiri hasi cya ruswa ndetse n’imikorere myiza.

Ghana na yo yakunze kugaragara nk’igihugu ntangarugero muri demokarasi kuko guhererekanya ubuyobozi hagati kw’abaperezida.

Nyamara, nta gihugu na kimwe muri ibi cyagaragaje umuvuduko w’iterambere uri hejuru ndetse n’iterambere ry’imibereho myiza y’abaturage nk’u Rwanda.

Boima agira ati “Ni yo mpamvu ntanga u Rwanda nk’urugero ibindi bihugu by’Afurika bikwiye gufatiraho.

Ibihugu by’Afurika bikwiye kwigiranaho kandi ni bwo buryo bwiza kuko tudakwiye gushingira ku byo twirirwa dusoma mu bitabo by’abazungu cyangwa iby’abazungu burira indege bakajya gukora ibiraka muri Afurika bavuga.”

Aha ni ho ahera avuga ko ibyo igihugu cy’igituranyi cyagezeho byagombye kuba urugero rwiza rw’ibishoboka, bityo ibyo u Rwanda rumaze kugeraho akaba asanga byafasha ibihugu byinshi by’Afurika.

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